A resident of a country who was born outside that country and who has not become a naturalized citizen; any person not a natural-born or naturalized citizen or national of the United States. 8 U.S.C.
One born out of the jurisdiction of the United States, who has not since been naturalized uuder their constitution and laws. To this there are some exceptions, as this children of the ministers of the United States in foreign courts.
Aliens are subject to disabilities, have rights, as well as duties.
An alien cannot in general acquire title to real estate by the descent, or by other mere operation of law; and if he purchase land, he may be divested of the fee, upon an inquest of office found. To this general rule there are statutory exceptions in some of the states.
An alien, even after being naturalized, is ineligible to the office of president of the United States; and in some states, as in New York, to that of govenor; he cannot be a member of congress, till the expiration of seven years after his naturalization. An alien can exercise no political rights whatever; he cannot therefore vote at any political election, fill any office, or serve as a juror.
An alien has a right to acquire personal estate, make and enforce contracts in relation to the same he is protected from injuries, and wrongs, to his person and property, his relative rights and character; he may sue and be sued.
He owes a temporary local allegiance, and his property is liable to taxation. Aliens are either alien friends or alien enemies. It is only alien friends wbo have the rights above enumerated; alien enemies are incapable, during the existence of war to sue, and may be ordered out of the country.