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This is a generic term applicable to the various methods of transfering property from one person to another. Lord Coke, says alien cometh of the verb alienate, that is, alienum facere vel ex nostro dominio in alienum trawferre sive rem aliquam in dominium alterius transferre. These methods vary, according to the nature of the property to be conveyed and the particular objects the conveyance is designed to accomplish. It has been held, that under a prohibition to alienate, long leases are comprehended.
ALIENATION, Estates. Alienation is an act whereby one man transfers the property and possession of lands, tenements, or other things, to another. It is commonly applied to lands or tenements, as to alien (that is, to convey) land in fee, in mortmain.
Alienations may be made by deed; by matter of record; and by devise.
Alienations by deed may be made by original or primary conveyances, which are those by means of which the benefit or estate is created or first arises; by derivative or secondary conveyances, by which the benefit or estate originally created, is enlarged, restrained, transferred, or extinguished. These are conveyances by the common law. To these may be added some conveyances which derive their force and operation from the statute of uses.
The original conveyances are the following: 1. Feoffment; 2. Gift; 3. Grant; 4. Lease; 6. Exchange; 6. Partition. The derivative are, 7. Release; 8. Confirmation; 9. Surrender; 10. Assignment; 11. Defeasance. Those deriving their force from the statute of uses, are, 12. Covenants to stand seised to uses; 13. Bargains and sales; 14. Lease and release; 15. Deeds to lend or declare the uses of other more direct conveyances; 16. Deeds of revocation of uses.
Alienations by matter of record may be, 1. By private acts of the legislature; 2. By grants, as by patents of lands; 3. By fines; 4. By common recovery. Alienations may also be made by devise.
Med. Jur. The term alienation or mental alienation is a generic expression to express the different kinds of aberrations of the human understanding.