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This word, used in the singular number, designates a nation at war with the United States, and includes every member of such nation. To make a public enemy, the government of the foreign country must be at war with the United States; for a mob, how numerous soever it may be, or robbers, whoever they may be, are never considered as a public enemy.
A common carrier is exempt from responsibility, whenever a loss has been occasioned to the goods in his charge by the act of a public enemy, but the burden of proof lies on him to show that the loss was so occasioned.