The purpose of the University of Washington cannot be to produce black lawyers for blacks, Polish lawyers for Poles, Jewish lawyers for Jews, Irish lawyers for Irish. It should be to produce good lawyers for Americans and not to place First Amendment barriers against anyone. - Justice William O. Douglas, dissenting, DeFunis v. Odegaard, 416 U.S. 342 (1974).
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A tax assessed against the beneficiaries of an estate base on the amount received by each beneficiary and that beneficiary's relationship to the decedent (that is, the shares of close relatives are sometimes assessed at lower rates).