All four practices resemble those used in the former Soviet Union, where every copying machine had a guard to prevent forbidden copying, and where individuals had to copy information secretly and pass it from hand to hand as "samizdat." There is of course a difference: the motive for information control in the Soviet Union was political; in the US the motive is profit. But it is the actions that affect us, not the motive. Any attempt to block the sharing of information, no matter why, leads to the same methods and the same harshness.
Search The Library's Lexicon
Engl. law. The union of securities given at different times, so as to prevent any intermediate purchasers claiming title to redeem, or otherwise discharge one lien, which is prior, without redeeming or discharging other liens also, which are subsequent to his own title. It is an established doctrine in the English chancery that a bona fide purchaser and without any notice of a defect in his title at the time of the purchase, may lawfully buy any statute, mortgage, or encumbrance, and if he can defend by those at law, his adversary shall have no help in equity to set those encumbrances aside, for equity will not disarm such a purchaser. And as mortgagees are considered in equity as purchasers pro tanto, the same doctrine has extended to them, and a mortgagee who has advanced his money without notice of any prior encumbrance, may, by getting an assignment of a statute, judgment, or recognizance, protect himself from any encumbrance subsequent to such statute, judgment or recognizance, though prior to his mortgage; that is, he will be allowed to tack or unite his mortgage to such old security, and will by that means be entitled to recover all moneys for which such security was given, together with the money due on his mortgage, before the prior. mortgagees are entitled to recover anything.
This doctrine is inconsistent with the laws of the several states, which require the recording of mortgages. The doctrine of tacking seems to have been acknowledged in the civil law. But this tacking could not take place to the injury of intermediate encumbrancers.