v line Direct action may be the extreme of violence, or it may be as peaceful as the waters of the Brook of Shiloa that go softly. What I say is, that the real non-resistants can believe in direct action only, never in political action. For the basis of all political action is coercion; even when the State does good things, it finally rests on a club, a gun, or a prison, for its power to carry them through. - Voltairine de Cleyre, "Direct Action"


In its most extensive signification this word includes all sorts of dealings by way of Bale or exchange. In a more limited sense it signifies the dealings in a particular business, as the India trade; by trade is also understood the business of a particular mechanic, hence boys are said to be put apprentices to learn a trade, as the trade of a carpenter, shoemaker, and the like. Trade differs from art.

It is the policy of the law to encourage trade, and therefore all contracts which restrain the exercise of a man's talents in trade are detrimental to the commonwealth, and therefore void; though he may bind himself not to exercise a trade in a particular place, for, in this last case, as he may pursue it in another place, the commonwealth has the benefit of it.


One who makes it his business to buy merchandise or goods and chattels, and to sell the same for the purpose of making a profit. The quantum of dealing is immaterial, when an intention to deal generally exists.

Questions as to who is a trader most frequently arise under the bankrupt laws, and the most difficult among them are those cases where the party follows a business which is not that of buying and selling principally, but in which he is occasionally engaged in purchases and sales.

To show who is a trader will be best illustrated by a few examples: A farmer who in addition to his usual business, occasionally buys a horse not calculated for his usual occupation, and sells him again to make a profit, and who in the course of two years had so bought and sold five or six horses, two of which had been sold after be bad bought them for the sake of a guinea profit, was held to be a trader. Another farmer who bought a large quantity of potatoes, not to be used on his farm, but merely to sell again for a profit, was also declared to be a trader. A butcher who kills only such cattle as be has reared himself is not a trader, but if he buy them and kill and sell them with a view to profit, he is a trader. A brickmaker who follows the business, for the purpose of enjoying the profits of his real estate merely, is not a trader; but when he buys the earth by the load or otherwise, and manufactures it into bricks, and sells them with a view to profit, he is a trader.