v line The absorption of all social functions by the State necessarily favoured the development of an unbridled, narrow-minded individualism. In proportion as the obligations towards the State grew in numbers, the citizens were evidently relieved from their obligations towards each other. In the guild -- and in medieval times every man belonged to some guild or fraternity -- two "brothers" were bound to watch in turns a brother who had fallen ill; it would be sufficient now to give one's neighbour the address of the next paupers' hospital. In barbarian society, to assist at a fight between two men, arisen from a quarrel, and not to prevent it from taking a fatal issue, meant to be oneself treated as a murderer; but under the theory of the all-protecting State the bystander need not intrude: it is the policeman's business to interfere, or not. And while in a savage land, among the Hottentots, it would be scandalous to eat without having loudly called out thrice whether there is not somebody wanting to share the food, all that a respectable citizen has to do now is to pay the poor tax and to let the starving starve. The result is, that the theory which maintains that men can, and must, seek their own happiness in a disregard of other people's wants is now triumphant all round in law, in science, in religion. It is the religion of the day, and to doubt of its efficacy is to be a dangerous Utopian. - Peter Kropotkin, Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution, ch. 7


The copy made in one language of what has been written, or spoken in another.In pleading, when a libel or an agreement, written in a foreign language, must be averred, it is necessary that a translation of it should also be given.

In evidence, when a witness is unable to speak the English language so as to convey his ideas, a translation of his testimony must be made. In that case, an interpreter should be sworn to translate to him, on oath, the questions propounded to him, and to translate to the court and jury his answers.

It has been determined that a copyright may exist in a translation, as a literary work. In the ecclesiastical law, translation denotes the removal from one place to another; as, the bishop was translated from the diocese of A, to that of B. In the civil law, translation signifies the transfer of property.

Swinburne applies the term translation to the bestowing of a legacy which had been given to one, on another; this is a species of ademption, but it differs from it in this, that there may be an ademption without a translation, but there can be no translation without an ademption. By translation is also meant the transfer of property, but in this sense it is seldom used.