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Order derived through submission and maintained by terror is not much of a safe guaranty; yet that is the only "order" that governments have ever maintained. True social harmony grows naturally out of solidarity of interests. In a society where those who always work never have anything, while those who never work enjoy everything, solidarity of interests is non-existent; hence social harmony is but a myth.... Thus the entire arsenal of governments - laws, police, soldiers, the courts, legislatures, prisons - is strenuously engaged in "harmonizing" the most antagonistic elements in society. ~Emma Goldman, Anarchism

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The Department of Justice was established by act of June 22, 1870, as amended (28 U.S.C. 501, 503, 509 note), with the Attorney General as its head. Prior to 1870 the Attorney General was a member of the President's Cabinet, but not the head of a department, the office having been created under authority of act of September 24, 1789, as amended (28 U.S.C. 503).

The affairs and activities of the Department of Justice are generally directed by the Attorney General. The offices, divisions, bureaus, and boards of the Department follow.

Offices

Attorney General

The Attorney General, as head of the Department of Justice and chief law enforcement officer of the Federal Government, represents the United States in legal matters generally and gives advice and opinions to the President and to the heads of the executive departments of the Government when so requested. The Attorney General appears in person to represent the Government before the U.S. Supreme Court in cases of exceptional gravity or importance. The Office of the Attorney General oversees the Offices of Deputy Attorney General, Associate Attorneys General, Legal Counsel, and Inspector General, as well as the following offices whose public purposes are widely applied.

Solicitor General

The Solicitor General represents the U.S. Government in cases before the Supreme Court. He decides what cases the Government should ask the Supreme Court to review and what position the Government should take in cases before the Court. Also, he supervises the preparation of the Government's Supreme Court briefs and other legal documents and the conduct of the oral arguments in the Court. He or his staff argue most of the Government's cases in the Supreme Court. The Solicitor General's duties also include deciding whether the United States should appeal in all cases it loses before the lower courts.

Legal Counsel

The Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Office of Legal Counsel assists the Attorney General in fulfilling the Attorney General's function as legal adviser to the President and all the executive branch agencies. The Office drafts legal opinions of the Attorney General rendered in response to requests from the President and heads of the executive departments. It also provides its own written opinions and informal advice in response to requests from the various agencies of the Government, as well as offices within the Department and from Presidential staff and advisers, typically dealing with legal issues involving agency disagreements or with pending legislation. The Office also is responsible for providing legal advice to the executive branch on all constitutional questions.

All Executive orders and proclamations proposed to be issued by the President are reviewed by the Office of Legal Counsel for form and legality, as are various other matters that require the President's formal approval. In addition, the Office of Legal Counsel functions as general counsel for the Department. It reviews all proposed orders of the Attorney General and all regulations requiring the Attorney General's approval.

The Office coordinates the work of the Department with respect to treaties, executive agreements, and international organizations. It performs a variety of special assignments referred by the Attorney General or the Deputy Attorney General. However, it is not authorized to give legal advice to private persons.

Information and Privacy

The Office of Information and Privacy (OIP) operates under the supervision of a Director, who manages the Department's responsibilities related to the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and the Privacy Act. These responsibilities include coordinating policy development and compliance Governmentwide for FOIA, and by the Department for the Privacy Act; and adjudicating all appeals from denials by any Department component of access to information under those acts. OIP also processes all initial requests under those acts for access to the records of the Offices of the Attorney General, Deputy Attorney General, Associate Attorney General, and other senior management offices of the Department.

Pardon Attorney The Office of the Pardon Attorney, in consultation with the Attorney General or the Attorney General's designee, assists the President in the exercise of his pardon power under Article II, section 2, of the Constitution. Generally, all requests for pardon or other forms of executive clemency, including commutation of sentence, are directed to the Pardon Attorney for investigation and review.

The Pardon Attorney prepares the Department's recommendation to the President for final disposition of each application.

Community Relations Service

The Service was created by title X of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000g et seq.). The Community Relations Service is under the general authority of the Attorney General and is headed by a Director, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate.

The mission of the Service is to prevent and resolve community conflicts and reduce community tensions arising from actions, policies, and practices perceived to be discriminatory on the basis of race, color, or national origin.

The Service offers assistance to communities in resolving disputes relating to race, color, or national origin and facilitates the development of viable agreements as alternatives to coercion, violence, or litigation. It also assists and supports communities in developing local mechanisms as proactive measures to prevent or reduce racial/ethnic tensions.

The services provided include conciliation, mediation, technical assistance, and training, and involve specialized procedures for preventing and resolving racial and ethnic conflicts.

The Service provides assistance directly to people and their communities. It shows no partiality among disputing parties and, in promoting the principles and ideals of nondiscrimination, applies skills that allow parties to mediate their own disputes. The Service's conciliators, who are located in 10 regional offices and 4 field offices around the country, assist people of diverse racial and cultural backgrounds.

The Service offers its assistance either on its own motion, when in its judgment peaceful relations among the citizens of a community are threatened, or upon request of State or local officials or other interested persons. The Service seeks the cooperation of appropriate State and local, and public and private agencies in carrying out the agency's mission.

Justice Management Division Under the direction of the Assistant Attorney General for Administration, the Division provides assistance to senior management officials relating to basic Department policy for evaluation, budget and financial management, personnel management and training, equal opportunity programs, automatic data processing and telecommunications, security, records management, procurement, real property and materiel management, and for all other matters pertaining to organization, management, and administration.

The Division provides direct administrative support services, such as personnel, accounting, payroll, procurement, budget, and facilities and property management to the offices, boards, and divisions of the Department; and operates several central services, such as automated data processing.

The Division develops and promulgates Departmentwide policies, standards, and procedures for the management of automated information processing resources and for the directive system and reviews their implementation. The Division collects, organizes, and disseminates recorded information that is necessary for the Department to carry out its statutory mandate and provides general research and reference assistance regarding information to Department staff, other Government attorneys, and members of the public.

Asset Forfeiture Management Staff (AFMS)

The Staff has responsibility for the administrative management functions of the asset forfeiture program in the Department of Justice. These functions include management of the Department of Justice Asset Forfeiture Fund (AFF) including interpretation of the AFF statute; implementation and operation of the Consolidated Asset Tracking System (CATS); management of both internal and external budget processes regarding AFF monies; managing investment of AFF and Seized Asset Deposit Fund (SADF) surplus balances; development, administration, and oversight of asset forfeiture program-wide contracts; review, audit, and evaluation of asset forfeiture program activities; identification of program weaknesses and development, monitoring, and review of appropriate internal controls; analysis of legislative, policy, and regulatory proposals that may affect execution of the asset forfeiture program.

Professional Responsibility The Office of Professional Responsibility, which reports directly to the Attorney General, is responsible for investigating allegations of criminal or ethical misconduct by employees of the Justice Department. The Counsel on Professional Responsibility heads the Office, the role of which is to ensure that departmental employees continue to perform their duties in accordance with the high professional standards expected of the Nation's principal law enforcement agency.

All allegations of misconduct against Department attorneys that relate to the exercise of their discretion to investigate, litigate, or provide legal advice are reported to the Office of Professional Responsibility. The Office also has jurisdiction to investigate allegations of misconduct by law enforcement personnel when they are related to allegation of misconduct by attorneys within the Office's jurisdiction. The Office usually conducts its own investigations into allegations.

The Office may also participate in or direct an investigation conducted by another component of the Department, or may simply monitor an investigation conducted by an appropriate agency having jurisdiction over the matter. In addition, the Office oversees the internal inspection operations of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and Drug Enforcement Administration.

The Counsel submits an annual report to the Attorney General that reviews and evaluates the Department's internal inspection units. The Counsel makes recommendations to the Attorney General on the need for changes in policies or procedures that become evident during the course of internal inquiries reviewed or initiated by the Office.

Intelligence Policy and Review

The Office of Intelligence Policy and Review, under the direction of the Counsel to the Attorney General for Intelligence Policy, is responsible for advising the Attorney General on all matters relating to the national security activities of the United States. The Office also serves as adviser to the Attorney General and various client agencies, including the Central Intelligence Agency, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the National Security Agency, and the Defense and State Departments, concerning questions of law, regulation, and guidelines as well as the legality of domestic and overseas intelligence operations.

The Office prepares and files all applications for surveillances and searches under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, assists Government agencies by providing legal advice on matters of national security law and policy and represents the Department of Justice on a variety of interagency committees. The Office also comments on and coordinates other agencies' views regarding proposed legislation affecting national security and intelligence matters.

The Office maintains an Intelligence Analytic Unit (IAU) to keep the Attorney General, Deputy Attorney General, and other senior Department officials currently informed on matters pertaining to their responsibilities.

Executive Office for United States Attorneys (EOUSA) The Office was created on April 6, 1953, by Attorney General Order No. 8–53, to meet a need for a closer liaison between the Department of Justice in Washington, DC, and the U.S. attorneys. The Office is under the supervision of the Deputy Attorney General.

The mission of EOUSA is to provide general executive assistance to the 94 Offices of the U.S. attorneys and to coordinate the relationship between the U.S. attorneys and the organization components of the Department of Justice and other Federal agencies.

U.S. Trustee Program

The U.S. Trustee Program acts in the public interest to promote the efficiency and to protect and preserve the integrity of the bankruptcy system. It works to secure the just, speedy, and economical resolution of bankruptcy cases; monitors the conduct of parties, takes action to ensure compliance with applicable laws and procedures, and identifies and investigates bankruptcy fraud and abuse; and oversees administrative functions in bankruptcy cases. The Program is funded by the U.S. Trustee System Fund, which consists mainly of filing fees paid by debtors invoking the protections of the bankruptcy laws.

The U.S. Trustees supervise the administration of four of the five types of bankruptcy proceedings defined under the Bankruptcy Code. These are:

Specific responsibilities of the U.S. Trustees include:

Executive Office for U.S. Trustees

The Attorney General is charged with the appointment, supervision, and coordination of the U.S. Trustees and Assistant U.S. Trustees. Day-to-day policy and legal direction, coordination, and control are provided by the Director of the Executive Office for U.S. Trustees who is appointed by the Attorney General. The Executive Office also provides administrative and management support to individual U.S. Trustee Offices.

For further information, contact the Executive Office for U.S. Trustees, Department of Justice, Suite 700, 901 E Street NW., Washington, DC 20530. Phone, 202–307–1391.

Sources of Information

Controlled Substances Act Registration

Information about registration under the Controlled Substances Act may be obtained from the Registration Section of the Drug Enforcement Administration, P.O. Box 28083, Central Station, Washington, DC 20038. Phone, 202– 307–7255.

Disability-Related Matters Contact the Civil Rights Division's ADA Hotline. Phone, 800–514–0301. TDD, 800–514– 0383.

Drugs and Crime Clearinghouse Phone, 800–666–3332 (toll-free).

Electronic Access Information concerning Department of Justice programs and activities is available electronically through the Internet, at http://www.usdoj.gov/.

Employment The Department maintains an agencywide job line. Phone, 202– 514–3397.

Attorneys' applications: Director, Office of Attorney Personnel Management, Department of Justice, Room 6150, Tenth Street and Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20530. Phone, 202–514–1432.

Assistant U.S. attorney applicants should apply to individual U.S. attorneys.

United States Marshals Service: Field Staffing Branch, United States Marshals Service, Department of Justice, 600 Army Navy Drive, Arlington, VA 22202– 4210.

Federal Bureau of Investigation: Director, Washington, DC 20535, or any of the field offices or resident agencies whose addresses are listed in the front of most local telephone directories.

Immigration and Naturalization Service: Central Office, 425 I Street NW., Washington, DC 20536 (phone, 202–514–2530); or any regional or district office.

Drug Enforcement Administration: regional offices, laboratories, or Washington Headquarters Office of Personnel.

Bureau of Prisons: Central Office, 320 First Street NW., Washington, DC 20534 (phone, 202–307–3082); or any regional or field office.

Office of Justice Programs, 633 Indiana Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20531. Phone, 202–307–0730.

United States Trustee Program, Room 770, 901 E Street NW., Washington, DC 20530. Phone, 202–616–1000.

Foreign Claims Settlement Commission: Attorneys: Office of the Chief Counsel, Suite 6002, 600 E Street NW., Washington, DC 20579 (phone, 202–616–6975); Other: Administrative Officer, same address and phone.

Housing Discrimination Matters Contact the Civil Rights Division's Housing and Civil Enforcement Section. Phone, 800–896–7743.

Immigration-Related Employment Matters The Civil Rights Division maintains a Worker Hotline. Phone, 800–255–7688. TDD, 800–237–2515. It also offers information for employers. Phone, 800–255–8155. TDD, 800–362– 2735.

Publications and Films The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin and Uniform Crime Reports - Crime in the United States are available from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402.

The Annual Report of the Attorney General of the United States is published each year by the Department of Justice, Washington, DC 20530.

Approximately nine textbooks on citizenship, consisting of teachers manuals and student textbooks at various reading levels, are distributed free to public schools for applicants for citizenship and are on sale to all others from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. Public schools or organizations under the supervision of public schools which are entitled to free textbooks should make their requests to the appropriate Immigration and Naturalization Service Regional Office (See appropriate section of this manual for mailing addresses.). For general information, call 202–514–3946.

The Freedom of Information Act Guide and Privacy Act Overview and the Freedom of Information Case List, both published annually, are available from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20530; and in electronic format through Library of Congress. ISBN 0–16–042921– 8.

FOIA Update (Stock No. 727–002– 00000–6), published quarterly, is available free of charge to FOIA offices and other interested offices Governmentwide. This publication is also available from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402; and in electronic format through Library of Congress.

Guidelines for Effective Human Relations Commissions, Annual Report of the Community Relations Service, Community Relations Service Brochure, CRS Hotline Brochure, Police Use of Deadly Force: A Conciliation Handbook for Citizens and Police, Principles of Good Policing: Avoiding Violence Between Police and Citizens, Resolving Racial Conflict: A Guide for Municipalities, and Viewpoints and Guidelines on Court-Appointed Citizens Monitoring Commissions in School Desegregation are available upon request from the Public Information Office, Community Relations Service, Department of Justice, Washington, DC 20530.

A limited number of drug educational films are available, free of charge, to civic, educational, private, and religious groups.

A limited selection of pamphlets and brochures is available. The most widely requested publication is Drugs of Abuse, an identification manual intended for professional use. Single copies are free.

Copies of the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission's semiannual (through December 1966) and annual (from January 1967) reports to the Congress concerning its activities are available at the Commission in limited quantities.

Reading Rooms Located in Washington, DC, at: U.S. Department of Justice, Room 6505, Tenth Street and Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20530 (phone, 202–514–3775).

Bureau of Prisons, 320 First Street NW., 20534 (phone, 202–307–3029);

Immigration and Naturalization Service, 425 I Street NW., 20536 (phone, 202– 514–2837);

Foreign Claims Settlement Commission, 600 E Street NW., 20579 (phone, 202–616–6975).

Also at the U.S. Parole Commission, 5550 Friendship Boulevard, Chevy Chase, MD 20815 (phone, 301–492–5959);

Board of Immigration Appeals, Suite 2400, 5107 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041 (phone, 703–305–0168); some of the Immigration and Naturalization Service district offices; and the National Institute of Justice, 9th Floor, 633 Indiana Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20531 (phone, 202–307–5883).

Redress for Wartime Relocation/Internment Contact the Civil Rights Division's Office of Redress Administration. Helpline phone, 202– 219–6900. TDD, 202–219–4710.

Internet, http://www.usdoj.gov/.

Reference Service

In 1972, the National Institute of Justice established the National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS). All five OJP bureaus now support NCJRS, a clearinghouse of information and publications concerning OJP programs and other information of interest to the criminal justice community. The Office's National Institute of Justice, which has supported the clearinghouse for almost 20 years, provides most of the funding for the National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Police, corrections agencies, courts, criminal justice planners, juvenile justice practitioners, community crime prevention groups, and others needing information for planning and problem solving in criminal justice can refer to this international information service specially designed to assist the justice community.

The National Criminal Justice Reference Service provides information from its computerized data base system free or at a minimal cost to users through a variety of products and services including the bimonthly NIJ Catalog, which contains abstracts of significant additions to the data base and pertinent information and a Calendar of Events announcing upcoming training courses and conferences; selected hardcopy documents upon request; three types of data base search packages; various microfiche products; and referrals to other information sources.

Under contracts with OJP bureaus, the National Criminal Justice Reference Service also operates the Drugs and Crime Data Center and Clearinghouse, the Bureau of Justice Assistance Clearinghouse, the Justice Statistics Clearinghouse, the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse, the National Victims Resource Center, and the Construction Information Exchange. All the Service's clearinghouses may be contacted on 800–851–3420 (toll-free); or in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area on 301–251–5500.

The NCJRS Electronic Bulletin Board, with 3,000 registered users, makes NCJRS' services available online. The Bulletin Board may be accessed by modem on 301–738–8895.

Organizations and individuals may register to receive information from the National Criminal Justice Reference Service by writing NCJRS, Box 6000, 1600 Research Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20850.

Small Business Activities Contract information for small businesses can be obtained from the Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization, Department of Justice, Tenth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20530. Phone, 202–616–0521.

For further information concerning the Department of Justice, contact the Office of Public Affairs, Department of Justice, Tenth Street and Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20530. Phone, 202– 514–2007 (voice); 202–786–5731 (TDD).

See Also:

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