For most of the 19th Century the criminal law which was applied in the
three Straits Settlement of Singapore, Penang and Malacca was that of
England, in so far as local circumstances were permitted. There was
little doubt that English common law crimes were recognised in these
territories at the time. Certain problems, eg the application of
certain Indian Acts, however, arose in 1871 and the Straits Settlements
Penal Code was passed. It came into operation on 16 September 1872.
The Code is practically a re-enactment of the Indian Penal Code.
The original Code, as amended on numerous occasions, presently states
the law of Singapore. The most recent amendment was made by the Penal
Code (Amendment) Act 1984 which came into effect on 31 August 1984. The
effect of this amendment was that minimum penalties were provided for
certain offences. The last major amendment of the Code prior to 1984
took place in 1973 when punishments for certain offences were enhanced.
Prior to 1870 the law relating to Criminal Procedure in force in
Singapore was mainly found in the Indian Act XVI of 1852. As a
consequence of the passing of the Straits Settlements Penal Code in
1871, the Criminal Procedure Ordinance V of 1870 was passed which
replaced the Criminal Procedure Act XVI of 1852 but continued the
English system of Criminal Procedure and made it applicable to the Penal
Code. This was found impracticable as the Penal Code did away with the
division of crimes into felonies and misdemeanours and the Criminal
Procedure Ordinance VI of 1873 was passed accordingly. The Ordinance VI
of 1873 marked the passage of the English Criminal Law in favour of the
Indian. The Ordinance did away with indictments and instituted charges
for all criminal offences; it abolished the Grand Jury and Special and
A new Code of Criminal Procedure was enacted in 1902. The present Code
was passed by the Legislative Council on 28 January 1955. It repeals
and re-enacts with the amendments the previous Code. All offences under
the Penal Code are inquired into and tried according to the Criminal
As a rule, the investigation of offences is dealt with by the police.
Besides the police officers, there are also custom officers, immigration
officers and narcotic officers who are empowered to investigate limited
offences in contravention of custom, immigration and drug laws. The
police operate under the supervision of the Ministry of Home Affairs.
Criminal prosecution in Singapore is instituted by the state which is
represented by the Attorney General's Department, with some exceptions
like private summons which are brought by individuals for certain minor
offences or nuisances. The Attorney General's Department is headed by
the Attorney General, assisted by the Solicitor General and a staff of
deputy public prosecutors, all of whom are legally qualified and
recruited through the Legal Service Commission. The Attorney General is
appointed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister from
among persons qualified as Supreme Court judges.
The prosecuting department of each investigative agency mentioned above
is also empowered to prosecute only minor cases not involving points of
law or complex legal issues under its jurisdiction. The Attorney
General who is also the Public Prosecutor, controls and directs
prosecutions in Singapore, with the assistance of several Deputy Public
Prosecutors. The Attorney General initiates proceedings and can also
terminate proceedings at pre-prosecution stage and even during the
trial, if for good reasons, he deems it unnecessary to proceed further
with the case. Proceedings can also be terminated or discontinued by
the Attorney General even though the proceedings were not initiated by
him in the first instance.
The court system in criminal matters consists of the Supreme Court and
the Subordinate Court. The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice
and the judges of the Supreme Court and divided into the High Court,
Court of Appeal and the Court of Criminal Appeal.
The High Court exercises unlimited original jurisdiction in criminal
cases. Generally, the High Court sits with one judge, but since the
abolition of the jury system in 1969, offences in which the punishment
of death is authorised by law are now triable by a court of two judges,
one of whom presides. The Court of Criminal Appeal hears appeals by
persons convicted by the High Court.
Lower courts, known as Subordinate Courts, consist of the nine District
Courts, eleven Magistrates' Courts, one Juvenile Court, one Coroners
Court and the Small Claims Tribunal. The District Courts try all
offences for which the maximum term of imprisonment provided by law does
not exceed seven years or which are punishable by a fine only. A
District Court has one judge sitting. Magistrates' Courts have the power
to hear, try, determine and dispose of offenders in summary prosecution
for offences where the maximum term of imprisonment provided by law does
not exceed three years or which are punishable by a fine only. The
procedure and functions of criminal courts are defined mainly by the
Criminal Procedure Code, the Supreme Court Judicature Act, the
Subordinate Courts Act, and the Children and Young Persons Act.
The minimum age of criminal responsibility is seven. In addition, a
child above seven years of age and under twelve, is not criminally
responsible if he/she has not attained sufficient maturity of
understanding to judge the nature and consequence of his/her conduct on
Punishments prescribed under the Penal Code are: death; imprisonment;
forfeiture of property; fine; and caning. Apart from these penalties,
habitual offenders may be sentenced to corrective and reformative
training, preventive detention.
In spite of the decrease of total convictions, there was a striking
increase in prison population. This may suggest that judges in
Singapore have preferred to use imprisonment more or that they have
chosen longer terms of imprisonment. Singapore, however, is not facing
overcrowding in prisons, since Singapore prisons have sufficient
capacity and the proportion of remand prisoners is not large in the
total prison population.
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