The art of taxation consists in so plucking the goose as to get the most feathers with the least hissing. ~Jean Baptist Colbert, attributed


PREMIUM LEGAL RESOURCES LEGAL FORMS ASK A LAWYER

SUPREME COURT
U.S. Supreme Court Bldg.
Washington, DC 20543
(202) 479-3000

The U.S. Supreme Court consists of nine justices, appointed for life by the President, with the advice and consent of the U.S. Senate. The Court holds one term annually, commencing on the first Monday in October.

Jurisdiction: The U.S. Constitution provides that the Supreme Court is to exercise original jurisdiction in such matters as those involving foreign ambassadors and those in which a State is a party, and that appellate jurisdiction is subject to regulation by Congress. Congress has authoized the Court to, among other things, review decisions of the lower Federal courts and the highest courts of the States.

U.S. COURT OF FEDERAL CLAIMS
717 Madison Place
Washington, DC 20005
(202) 219-9657

The U.S. Court of Federal Claims, formerly known as the U.S. Claims Court, mainly hears breach of contract claims filed by individuals and companies against the U.S. Government in those areas where such suits are allowed by Congressional waiver of soverign immunity. Tort actions against the Government may not be filed in this court; rather, they are heard in U.S.district courts. Judges in the U.S. Court of Federal Claims are appointed by the President for 15 year terms, subject to Senate confirmation. Appeals from Claims court decisions are to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit.

UNITED STATES COURT OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE
One Federal Plaza
New York, NY 10007
(212) 264-2800

This court hears product classification and valuation determinations by the customs Service plus appeals of unfair trade practice cases, involving antidumping and countervailing duty issues, from the Dep't of Commerce and the Int'l Trade Comm'n. The judges are appointed for life by the President, subject to Senate confirmation.

U.S. COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE ARMED FORCES
450 E St. N.W.
Washington, DC 20442-0001
(202) 761-1448 Fax:(202) 761-4672

This court, formerly known as the Court of Military Appeals, consists of five civilian judges appointed by the President for 15 year terms, subject to Senate confirmation. The court exercises appellate review of court-martial convictions. Its decisions prior to 1984 were final, but now are subject to Supreme Court review.

COURT OF VETERANS APPEALS
625 Indiana Ave. Suite 900
Washington, DC 20004
(202) 501-5970

This court was created by act of Congress in 1988 to review decisions of the Board of Veterans Appeals whose decisions, prior to the establishment of the Court of Veterans Appeals, were final. Appeals from the Court of Veterans Appeals are to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. Judges are appointed for 15-year terms and subject to Senate confirmation.

UNITED STATES TAX COURT
400 Second St. N.W.
Washington, DC 20217
(202) 606-8754

The Tax Court adjudicates controversies involving deficiencies or overpayments of income, estate and gift taxes. Tax Court judges are appointed by the President for 15 year terms, subject to Senate confirmation.

U.S COURTS OF APPEALS

There are 11 circuit courts of appeals plus the District of Columbia Circuit and the Federal Circuit. The Federal Circuit is a specialized appellate court, its docket consisting mainly of patent appeals from the U.S. district courts and appeals from the U.S. Court of Federal Claims, the U.S. Court of International Trade, the Court of Veterans Appeals, and the Merit Systems Protection Board. The other circuits have appellate jurisdiction over the U.S. district courts (excluding patents) and selected federal agencies. The judges of the courts of appeals are appointed for life by the President, subject to Senate confirmation.

FEDERAL CIRCUIT
717 Madison Place, N.W.,Rm. 209
Washington, DC 20439
(202) 633-6550

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA CIRCUIT
5409 Federal Courthouse
3rd & Constitution Ave. N.W.
Washington, DC 20001
(202) 273-0310

FIRST CIRCUIT (Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire
Rhode Island, Puerto Rico)
1606 J.W.M. Post Office & CtHse
90 Devonshire St.
Boston, MA 02109
(617) 223-9057

SECOND CIRCUIT (Connecticut, New York, Vermont)
U.S. Courthouse
40 Foley Sq.
New York, NY 10007
(212) 791-0100

THIRD CIRCUIT (Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virgin Islands)
21400 U.S. Courthouse
Independence Mall West
601 Market St.
Philadelphia, PA 19106
(215) 597-2995

FOURTH CIRCUIT (Maryland, N. Carolina, S. Carolina, Virginia, W Virg.)
U.S. Courthouse Annex
1100 E. Main St., 5th Fl.
Richmond, VA 23219
(804) 771-2213

FIFTH CIRCUIT (Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas)
U.S. Court of Appeals, Rm. 109
600 Camp St.
New Orleans, LA 70130
(504) 589-6514

SIXTH CIRCUIT (Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, Tennessee)
532 U.S. Post Office & CtHse
100 E. Fifth St.
Cincinnati, OH 45202-3988
(513) 684-2953
FAX: (513) 684-2775

SEVENTH CIRCUIT (Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin)
U.S. CtHse & Fed. Office Bldg.
219 S. Dearborn St.
Chicago, IL 60604
(312) 435-5850

EIGHTH CIRCUIT (Arkansas, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska,
N Dakota, S Dakota)
1114 Market St.
St. Louis, MO 63101-2077
(314) 539-3609

NINTH CIRCUIT (Arizona, California, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon,
Washington, Alaska, Hawaii, Guam, N Mariana Islands)
121 Spear St. (94105)
P.O. Box 193939
San Francisco, CA 94119-3939
(415) 744-9800

TENTH CIRCUIT (Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Utah, Wyoming)
Byron White U.S. Courthouse
1823 Stout St.
Denver, CO 80257
(303) 844-3157

ELEVENTH CIRCUIT (Alabama, Florida, Georgia)
Tuttle Court of Appeals Bldg.
56 Forsyth St. N.W.
Atlanta, GA 30303
(404) 331-6187

STATE SUPREME COURT CLERKS

Alabama

Justices elected in state-wide partisan elections for 6-year terms.
Vacancies filled by Governor.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
300 Dexter Ave.
Montgomery 36104-3741
(334) 242-0300

Alaska

Justices appointed by Governor from nominees of Alaska Judicial Council and subject to retention vote on nonpartisan ballot at first general election held more than three years after appointment. Retention vote terms are for 10 years. Clerk of the Appellate Courts:
303 K St.
Anchorage 99501
(907) 264-0607

Arizona

Justices appointed by governor for initial 2-year terms. Subsequent terms of 6-years by retention vote.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
Arizona Supreme Ct. Bldg.
1501 W. Washington, Ste. 411
Phoenix 85007
(602) 542-9396

Arkansas

Justices elected for 8-year terms in partisan elections. Vacancies filled by governor, though those so appointed not eligible for subsequent election.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
Court Clerk
Justice Bldg.
Little Rock 72201
(501) 682-6849

California

Justices appointed by governor and confirmed by Commission on Judicial Appointments. After confirmation, justices serve until next gubernatorial election and then run unapposed on a nonpartisan ballot for election to 12-year terms. Clerk of Supreme Court:
303 Second St.
South Tower
San Francisco 94107
(415) 396-9888

Colorado

Justices, appointed by governor, serve initial 2-year terms and thereafter stand for retention at general elections for 10-year terms. Clerk of Supreme Court:
Judicial Bldg.
2 E. 14th Ave.
Denver 80203
(303) 861-1111

Connecticut

Justices appointed to 8-year terms by General Assembly upon nomination by governor from list compiled by Judicial Selection Commission. Clerk of Supreme Court:
Drawer Z, Sta. A
Hartford 06106
(203) 566-8160

Delaware

Justices appointed for 12-year terms by governor with consent of the Senate from list of candidates provided by Judicial Nominating Commission.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
55 The Green
Supreme Court Bldg.
Dover 19901
(302) 739-4155

District of Columbia

Court of Appeals is District of Columbia's court of last resort. Judges on Court of Appeals are appointed to 15-year terms by President, subject to U.S. Senate confirmation.
Clerk of Court of Appeals:
500 Indiana Ave. N.W.
Washington, DC 20001
(202) 879-2725

Clerk of Superior Court:
500 Indiana Ave. N.W., Rm. 2500
Washington, DC 20001
(202) 879-1400

Florida

Justices elected on state-wide partisan ballot for 6-year terms. Vacancies filled by governor. Justices so appointed must stand for retention on a nonpartisan ballot at the next general election occurring at least 1-yr after appointment.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
Supreme Court Bldg.
Tallahassee 32399-1927
(904) 488-0125

Georgia

Justices elected in nonpartisan election to staggered 6-yr terms. Vacancies filled by governor from list submitted by Judicial Nominating Commission.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
244 Washington St. S.W.
Atlanta 30334
(404) 656-3470

Hawaii

Justices are appointed by Governor for 10-year terms from list submitted by Judicial Selection Commission. Re-appointment to subsequent terms based on recommendation of Judicial Selection Commission.
Clerk of the Supreme Court
417 S. Kinga St.
Honolulu 96813
(808) 539-4919

Idaho

Justices elected at-large in nonpartisan elections for staggered 6-yr terms. Vacancies filled by governer from list provided by Judicial Council. Newly appointed justices run in next general election for 6-yr terms.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
Supreme Court Bldg.
P.O. Box 83720
Boise 83720-0101
(208) 334-2210

Illinois

Justices elected at partisan elections for 10-yr terms. Thereafter, justices may run in a retention vote for an additional term without party affiliation.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
Supreme Court Bldg.
Springfield 62706
(217) 782-2035

Indiana

Justices appointed for initial 2-year terms by governor from list supplied by Judicial Nominating Commission. Subsequent 10-yr terms are by retention votes.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
Sup. Ct. & Ct. of Appeals
217 State House
Indianapolis 46204
(317) 232-1930

Iowa

Justices appointed by governor from list of nominees selected by a judicial nominating commission. Justices stand for retention for 8-yr terms at first general election following one year in office.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
State House
Des Moines 50319
(515) 281-5911

Kansas

Justices appointed by governor from nominations submitted by a Supreme Court nominating commission. Newly appointed justices serve initial 1- yr terms and then stand for retention for 6-yr terms.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
Clerk of Appellate Courts
Judicial Center
Topeka 66612
(913) 296-3229

Kentucky

State is divided into seven Supreme Court districts for electoral purposes. One justice is elected on a nonpartisan basis from each district for 8-yr term.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
State Capitol
700 Capitol Ave.
Frankfort 40601
(502) 564-5444

Louisiana

Justices elected for 10-year terms in nonpartisan elections. Vacancies are filled within one year by special election call by the governor. In the interim, vacancy is filled by Supreme Court appointment.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
Supreme Court Bldg.
301 Loyola Ave.
New Orleans 70012
(504) 568-5707

Maine

Justices appointed by governor with consent of the legislature for 7-yr terms.
Clerk of Supreme Judicial Ct:
Clerk of Law Court
P.O. Box 368 DTS
Portland 04112
(207) 822-4146

Maryland

Court of last resort in Maryland is called the Court of Appeals. Judges initially appointed by governor and confirmed by Senate and run for retention for 10-yr terms at the next general election occurring at least one year after the appointment.
Clerk of Court of Appeals:
Courts of Appeal Bldg.
361 Rowe Blvd.
Annapolis 21401
(410) 974-3341

Massachusetts

Justices appointed by governor with consent of the Executive Council to serve until age 70.
Clerk of Supreme Judicial Court:
1412 New Court House
Boston 02108
(617) 557-1020

Michigan

Justices nominated by political parties and elected at nonpartisan elections for staggered 8-yr terms.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
2nd Fl., Law Bldg.
P.O. Box 30052
Lansing 48909
(517) 373-0120

Minnesota

Justices elected in statewide nonpartisan elections for 6-yr terms. Vacancies filled by governor from list provided by a judicial nominating commission. Newly appointed justices serve until next general election occurring at least one year after appointment.
Clerk of Appellate Courts:
Clerk of Appellate Cts/ Supreme Ct Adm'r
25 Constitution Ave.
St. Paul 55155
(612) 296-2581

Mississippi

State of Mississippi is divided into three Supreme Court districts for election purposes. Three justices represent each district and are elected from their respective districts for 8-year terms.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
3rd Fl., Gartin Bldg.
Jackson 39205
(601) 359-3694

Missouri

Justices appointed by governor from list of candidates submitted by nonpartisan Appellate Judicial Commission. Justices must stand for retention at next general election occurring after one year in office; retention elections held every 12 years.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
Supreme Court Bldg.
101 High St.
Jefferson City 65102
(314) 751-4144

Montana

Justices elected in nonpartisan elections for 8-yr terms. Vacancies filled by appointment by governor with Senate confirmation. Clerk of Supreme Court:
Justice Bldg.
215 N. Sanders, Rm. 315
Helena 59620
(406) 444-3858

Nebraska

Justices appointed by governor from a list submitted by a judicial nominating commission. Justices run for retention at next general election occurring more than 3 yrs from date of appointment. If retained, they serve additional 6-yr terms.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
2413 State Capitol
Lincoln 68509
(402) 471-3731

Nevada

Justices elected in nonpartisan elections for staggered 6-yr terms. Vacancies filled by governor from nominees of Commission on Judicial Selection. Appointees serve until next general election. Clerk of Supreme Court:
Supreme Court Bldg.
Capitol Complex
Carson City 89710
(702) 687-5180

New Hampshire

Justices appointed by governor and Executive Council. Mandatory retirement at age 70, but retired justices may serve by assignment as senior justices.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
Supreme Court Bldg.
Concord 03301
(603) 271-2646

New Jersey

Justices initially appointed by governor with consent of Senate for 7-yr terms. Tenure granted upon reappointment.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
CN 970
Trenton 08625
(609) 292-4837

New Mexico

Justices elected in general elections to 8-yr terms. Vacancies filled by governor and those so appointed serve until next general election. Newly elected justice holds office until expiration original term.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
237 Don Gaspar
Santa Fe 87503
(505) 827-4860

New York

The Court of Appeals is New York's court of last resort. Justices appointed by governor with consent of Senate from list of candidates provided by Commission on Judicial Nominations.
Clerk of Court of Appeals
Court of Appeals
20 Eagle St.
Albany 12207
(518) 455-7700

North Carolina

Justices elected in statewide elections for 8-yr terms. Vacancies filled by governor.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
100 Justice Bldg.
P.O. Box 1841
Raleigh 27602
(919) 733-3723

North Dakota

Justices elected in nonpartisan elections for staggered 10-yr terms. Vacancies filled by governor from list provided by Judicial Nominating Committee or by special election called by governor. Appointees serve until next general election, at which time office is filled by election for remainder of term.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
State Capitol, Judicial Wing
600 E. Blvd. Ave.
Bismarck 58505
(701) 328-2221

Ohio

Justices nominated in partisan primaries but run on nonpartisan ballots at general elections for 6-yr terms. Vacancies occurring between elections filled by governor.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
Supreme Court of Ohio
30 E. Broad St.
Columbus 43266-0419
(614) 466-5201

Oklahoma

Justices initially appointed by governor from list submitted by Judicial Nominating Commission. If governor does not make appointment within 60 days, the chief justices does so. Thereafter, justices stand for retention in statewide nonpartisan elections to 6-yr terms.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
State Capitol, Rm. #1
Oklahoma City 73105
(405) 521-2163

Oregon

Justices elected in statewide nonpartisan elections to 6-yr terms. Vacancies filled by governor until a successor can be elected at next general election.
Appellate Court Records:
Supreme Court Bldg.
Salem 97310
(503) 378-6005

Pennsylvania

Justices initially elected in statewide partisan elections for 10-yr terms. Subsequent 10-yr terms are by retention vote. Vacancies filled by governor with consent of Senate until next general election, at which time those so appointed may run for election.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
Prothonotary
Supreme Court
468 City Hall
Philadelphia 19107
(215) 560-6370

Puerto Rico

Justices appointed by governor with advice and consent of the Senate. Court Administration:
Administrative Director
General Court of Justice
Office of Court Admin.
Vela St., Stop 35 1/2
P.O. Box 190917
Hato Rey 00919-0917
(809) 763-3049

Rhode Island

Justices elected by legislature to serve for life during good behavior. Clerk of Supreme Court:
Court Adm'r
Supreme Court
250 Benefit St.
Providence 02903
(401) 277-3272

South Carolina

Justices elected by General Assembly for staggered 10-year terms. If unexpired term does not exceed one year, governor may fill vacancy for remainder of that term.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
Supreme Court Bldg.
Box 11330
Columbia 29211
(803) 734-1080

South Dakota

Vacancies filled by governor from nominations of Judicial Qualifications Commission. State is divided into 5 electoral districts, with one justice appointed from each district and residing within that district. After qualifying, justices serve initial 3-yr terms and then stand for retention at statewide elections for staggered 8-yr terms.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
State Capitol
Pierre 57501
(605) 773-3511

Tennessee

Justices elected at-large for 8-yr terms in statewide partisan elections.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
Supreme Court Bldg.
Nashville 37219
(615) 741-2681

Texas

Justices elected in statewide partisan elections for overlapping 6-yr terms. Vacancies between elections are filled by governor with advice and consent of the Senate. Appointed justices serve until next general election.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
P.O. Box 12248
Capitol Station
Austin 78711
(512) 463-1312

Utah

Justices initially appointed by governor on recommendation of Judicial Nominating Commission and run unopposed for retention at next general election occurring not more than 3 years after appointment. Retention elections held every 10 years.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
332 State Capitol
Salt Lake City 84114
(801) 538-1044

Vermont

Justices initially appointed for 6-year terms by governor with advice and consent of Senate from list of nominees submitted by Judicial Nominating Board. Justices are thereafter subject to retention votes by General Assembly for 6-yr terms.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
Clerk/Court Adm'r
111 State St.
Montpelier 05602
(802) 828-3278

Virginia

Justices elected for 12-yr terms by majority vote of General Assembly. Interim appointments made by governor.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
Supreme Court Bldg.
100 N. 9th St., 4th Fl.
Richmond 23219
(804) 786-2251

Washington

Justices elected in statewide nonpartisan elections to staggered 6-yr terms. Vacancies filled by governor. Newly appointed justices run for election on nonpartisan ballots at next general election to complete the unexpired term.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
Temple of Justice
P.O. Box 40929
Olympia 98504-0929
(360) 357-2077

West Virginia

Supreme Court of Appeals is West Virginia's court of last resort. Justices elected in statewide partisan elections for 12-yr terms. Vacancies filled by governor pending next general election.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
Supreme Court of Appeals
Charleston 25305
(304) 558-2601

Wisconsin

Justices elected at-large in nonpartisan elections for staggered 10-yr terms. Vacancies occurring between terms filled by governor. Clerk of Supreme Court:
Supreme Court
P.O. Box 1688
Madison 53701
(608) 266-1880

Wyoming

Justices initially appointed by governor from list submitted by Judicial Nominating Commission and subject to retention vote one year after appointment.
Clerk of Supreme Court:
Supreme Court Bldg.
Cheyenne 82002
(307) 777-7316

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