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The U.S. Constitution, Article VIII, Section III, declares, that adhering to the enemies of the United States, giving them aid and comfort, shall be treason. These words, as they are to be understood in the constitution, have not received a full judicial construction. They import, however, help, support, assistance, countenance, encouragement. The word aid is explained by Lord Coke as comprehending all persons counselling, abetting, plotting, assenting, consenting, and encouraging to do the act, (and he adds, though not applicable to treason; who are not present when the act is done).