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A term which is applied to land in its most enlarged signification. Real security, therefore, means the security of mortgages or other incumbrances affecting lands. In the civil law, real has not the same meaning as it has in the common law. There it signifies what relates to a thing, whether it be movable or immovable, lands or goods; thus, a real injury is one which is done to a thing, as a trespass to property, whether it be real or personal in the common law sense. A real statute is one which relates to a thing, in contradistinction to such as relate to a person,
Those which concern the realty only, being such by which the demandant claims title to have any lands or tenements, rents, or other hereditaments, in fee simple, fee tail, or for term of life.In the civil law, by real actions are meant those which arise from a right in a thing, whether it be movable or immovable.
By this term are understood contracts in respect to real property. In the civil law real contracts are those which require the interposition of thing (rei,) as the subject of them; for instance, the loan for goods to be specifically returned.
By that law, contracts are divided into those which are formed by the mere consent of the parties, and therefore are called consensual; such as sale, hiring and mandate, and those in which it is necessary that there should be something more than mere consent, such as the loan of money, deposit or pledge, which, from their nature, require the delivery of the thing; whence they are called real.