CABINET governmental board of ministers. From old french language “ cabane ” = secret storehouse of a ship.
CALCULATION accounting of a figure . From latin “ calculus ” = littlestone, pebble. In the old roman empire, because lack of modern calculator, used the little stones to understand and show a figure or an amount of something.
CANCELLATION ( C. CLAUSE, C. DATA , C.OF CONTRACT, C. OF AN ORDER )
estinguishment, avoidance , debarment. Different origins , firstfrom latin ” candidus ” = white, clear, without fleck / ” caelum ” = sky. In figurative sense the clear sky is representing the absence of fault , or negative record. From latin ” cancellare ” = cover something with a netwire . Here, in the figurate sense of ” to bar ” something unable to be used.
CANON LAW law enforced inside the church organization. From latin “ canon ” = rule, regular, model. This because in the middleage, all the doctrinefar from the church were unlawful and irregular.
CANDIDATE TO A PUBLIC OFFICE concurrent to be appointed holder ofpublic office by means of elections. From latin ” candidatus ” = white dress. In fact, in the old roman empire, the politicians candidates to the senate, were in habit to turn around the streets, in the city of rome , with a white dress, to distinguish themselves among the other common people. The white colour was a symble of purity, the absence of dirty, meaning that the candidates were uncorrupted.
CAPIAS warrant of arrest . From latin “ capiere ” = to catch, to capture.
CAPTIVE ( C. PERSON, C. NATION ) person or nation subjected to afreedom restraint . From latin ” captivus ” = prisoner, captured.
CASE process in lawcourt, issue, problem. From latin “ casus ” = situation.
CASSATION (C. OF A SENTENCE, C. OF AN ORDER ) repaling, anulment . From modern italian “cassare” = to cancel . In fact, the supreme court, in Italy, is named “Corte di Cassazione” because has a power to cancel the validity of a sentence issued by an inferior court. Is even possible, that the term, is becoming from latin “cassus” = empty, without utility, unlawful. In this case, in figurative sense, a sentence issued by an inferior court, after the “cassation” , becomes “empty” of enforceability.
CAUTION warning, admonition. From latin “cautio ” = to invite to takecareful, to act with prudence .
CAVEAT warning, imtimation, notification. From latin “cavere” = to avoid,to look with carefulness. In the old roman empire, beside the gate of the houses in which therewas a dog , was a signals with scripture “cave canem” = beware of the dog.
CAVILL pretext, excuse . From latin “cavare” = to dig. In the figurativesense : to dig into the law system with the aim to find a loophole.
CLEARING OF DEFENDANT acquittance of a defendant , discharge of adefendant . From latin ” clarare ” = to make white, to make cleaned , to remove a stain. Here , in figurative sense, after the acquittance there is the removal of a stain in in the criminal record.
COGNISANCE OF CLAIM competence to decide a case . From latin “ cognoscere ” = to know, to have an experience about a situation.
COLITIGANT party in a process , joined to another party , litisconsortium .From latin “cum” = with, together / ” litis ” = concerning the process, concerning the dispute.
COLLATERAL ( C. AGREEMENT, C. CLAUSE, C.FACTS, C. NEGLIGENCE ) accessory, secondary, auxiliary. From latin “cum” = with,together / ” latus ” = at the side. Therefore, for example, a collateral negligence is not a main negligence but only a subsidiary negligence , a negligence standing “at the side ” of the principal.
COLLATION (C. OF WRITTEN PAPERFORMS, OF DATA )
comparison between two or more documents. From latin “collatio” =comparison.
COLLECTION (C. OF EVIDENCES, OF MONEY, OF CREDIT ) pickingup of evidence or credit, cashing money. From latin “collectus” = crop in a farm.
COLLUSION fraudulent agreement , secret and unlawful settlement. Fromlatin “collusio” = to act in secret with someone.
COMMISSARY deputy, delegate, proxy, vicar. From latin “ cum ” = with /”missus” = task , charge , duty. In fact, a commissary is a subject charged to do a specific task
COMMITTAL arrest, imprisonement, task to do a crime , charging a duty.From latin “committere” = to commit someone to do something, to give to someone a task to do an action.
COMMITTEE board , commission . From latin “comitium” = meeting /”comites ” = a group of friends / ” comitare ” = to escort or to accompaign somene . In fact , the committee is a meeting of people having a purpose.
COMMODATARY a thing granted in commodate contract. From latin “ commodare ” = to lend something , to grant something temporarely for use.
COMMORIENTES term concerning two or more people dead insimultaneous moment. From latin ” cum ” = with, together / ” mori ” = to dead.
COMMOTION insurrection, rebellious demonstration, revolt. From latin “ commotio ” = shaking. Therefore in figurate sense, is meaning the “ shaking ” of public order, of people.
COMMUTATIVE CONTRACT not performed contract, changed in aundertaking which part have to giveback the equivalent amount or object than amount or object received. From latin ” commutare ” = to exchange, to make a substitution. In fact, the original perfomance, without acquittance, had substituted with the restatement of original position of the agreed party.
COMPANY business, firm, concern. From latin “ cum ” = with / “ panis ” =bread. In old roman empire the simply fact to divide the lunch or dinner moment with another person, was symbolically meanings a joining of common interest and target to reach ). Also from ” cum ” = with / ” pagina ” = page. In figurative sense , a company is a book made by a lot of page, one joined with another, and having a common sense. Also from ” compages ” = structure, connexion, joining among persons. In fact, a company is firm made by a lot of persons joined with the aim to product and sell goods.
COMPELLING LAW imperative rule, rule forcing a behaviour, underogablelaw. From latin “compellere ” = to oblige.
COMPENSATION reward, remuneration, adjustment of damages. Fromlatin “compensatio ” = equilibrium, reposition in a former situation.
COMPETENCY OF PERSON legal capacity. From latin “ competere ” =to have a mastery of a matter.
COMPLAINT protest, crime reportin or tort reporting. From latin “ complanare ” = to put something over a flat . In figurative sense, means toput the wrong fact over a table of public body, with the purpose to show the situation.
COMPLY WITH A DECISION to accept a sentence without will of appeal.From latin “complacere” = to be welcome , pleasance of something.
CONCEALMENT ( C. OF A CRIME, OF A CORPSE, OF PROOFS ) dissembling a crime . From italian ” celare ” = to keep hidden to cover someone or something.
CONCILIATION agreement got between two or more party, avoiding theprocess in the court trial or having the purpose to get a settlement about a pending case. From latin “conciliare ” = to condense, to melt. Here, in figurative sense, is meaning ” to melt ” the will of different parties.
CONFIRMATION ratification or convalidation of documents. From latin “ confirmatus ” = assured, encorauged, sustained, sure ( term composed by “ cum ” = with / “ firmatus ” = sustained. Therefore, a document convalidatedby the will or the signature by somebody. In fact, in modern italian language, the term ” firma ” is meaning signature.
CONFISCATION forfeiture, sequestration, seizure, distraint . From latin “ cum ” = with / “fiscus ” = princep’s treasury. In figurate sense, the princepsrepresents the Crown, the State. Therefore the terms is meaning the collection and joining of people’s money with the aim to be cashed by the treasury department of the State.
CONGRESS u.s.a’s parliament. From latin “ cum ” = together / “ gressus “= common walking, path. In fact, in figurate sense, in the congress works , the deputies, together are “walking” with the aim to get a decision.
CONNIVENCE IN A CRIME complicity in a crime, abetement in a crime,joining in something wrong. From latin ” conivere ” = to close the eyes . Here in figurate sense, meaning to close the eyes to pretend don’t watch something wrong. Another possible coming of the term is from latin ” niveus ” = covered by snow. In the figurative sense, the ground is real situation of something wrong and the snow, falling on the ground, covers this situation.
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGE indirect damage. From latin “ cum ” = with/ ” sequi ” = to follow, to be dependent from, to be caused by another fact.
CONSTITUTION main law of a nation, law of the laws, political andinstitutional structure of a State. From latin ” constitutus ” = established, decided firmely.
CONSULATE ( OFFICE OF C. ) headquarter of a State’s offices in a foreignterritory, having as main task, the protection of own’s citizens rights in case of emergency. From latin “consolare” = to soothe , to give a consolation.
CONTEMPTION (C. OF COURT, OF CONGRESS) outrage . From latin “contemptus ” = despised , contempted.
CONTRACT legal deal , legal agreement, legal covenant . From latin “contractus ” = compressed, joined with strenght , bound with another thing. Or also from ” cum ” = with, together / ” tractus ” = brought. In fact, the contract is an agreement binding two parts to get a performance each other, or the agreement which a party is brought with another party towards an agreement.
CONTUMACY defendant condition which, without reason, doesn’tparticipate to the processual activity. From latin ” contumax ” = full of pride , challenging behaviour. In figurative sense, meanings a condition of pride that can be felt by law court as contempt, as lack of care for the lawcourt activity.
CONVEYANCE transfer of a right, of property , of privilege. From latin “ convenire ” = meeting together, to get a pact, to get an agreement.Specifically, from latin ” cum ” = with another, together / ” venire ” = to come. Therefore, a “conveyance” is a coming of two or more party towards a target. In this case the target is the agreement about the transfer of right.
CONVICTION guilty verdict, sentence involving an imprisonment . Thereare more possible becoming of this term. First : from latin ” convictum ” = demonstrated as guilty by evidences. In fact the infinite tense of ” convictum
” is ” convincere ” = to get the reliability showing the evidences. Second : from latin ” convictus ” = person eating in the same canteen. In figurative sense, would be the canteen of prison, where all the prisoners eat together. Even , in modern italian language the word ” vitto “, meanings expence to buy the food .
CORONER lawcourt officer having the duty to check the suspected death andmake an evaluation on the crime spot. From latin ” coronare ” = to surround. Here, in figurative sense meanings that the coroner activity is concerning a check of the all the circumstances or objects present ” around ” the murdered person. In fact, from “coronare” is becoming even the word “crown” , the jewel , a golden wire surrounding the king’s or queen’s head.
CORPORATION legal person, firm made by partnership of more people. From latin “corpus” = group , human body. In fact, the body is a group of different physical elements.
CORRECTIONAL FACILITY prison, penitentiary. From latin “ corrigere” = to get better, to straighten. In fact, a penitentiary institute has a duty to get better or to straighten the wrong behaviour of the prisoners with the aim to get a social rehabilitation. Also in italian modern language, the ruler, the lined tools used to account the centimeters is called “righello”.
CORROBORATING EVIDENCE kind of evidence increasing the reliabilityof another proof, making stronger another proof. From latin ” roborare ” = to reinforce, to consolidate.
CORRUPTION defilement, depravation (from latin “pravus ” = wrong ) ,subornation . From latin ” corrumpere ” = to seduce someone, to tempt , to induce someone to do something. In figurative sense, a corrupted public officer is seduced by promise of an undue advantage.
COUPON voucher, ticket , bill . From latin “ cauponari ” = to trade, tomanage a venue. Therefore the coupon, in figurative sense, is as certficate stating the consummation in a venue.
COUNTERFEIT to forge, to fake, to simulate, to falsify . From latin “ contra” = against / “facere” = to built . Therefore, the meaning is ” to built something against the genuine matter “.
COUNTERMAND revocation, cancellation . From latin “ contra ” = against/ ” mandatus ” = order , order to perform a duty or a task . Even the legal term ” mandatory ” is coming from latin ” mandatus ” = compulsory / ” ars” = capacity to be.
CONTINGENCY INSURANCE insurance against losses due to lack ofearnings , conditional insurance . From latin ” contingere ” = to happen . In fact, the insurance covers the losses only in case of coming true of condition reported in the insurance contract.
CONTRIBUTORY ( C. NEGLIGENCE, C. INFRINGEMENT )
concurrence in negligenge together the first negligent party , complicity in the rule violation . From latin ” cum ” = with , together with / ” tributus ” = shared. Therfore, for example, in case of car accident, there is the possibility that the guiltyness is not only charged on one driver, but even is “shared” with the other driver.
CONTROVERSY legal disput, litigation . From latin “ contra ” = against / “ versus ” = direction towards a place. In figurative sense , a dispute comesfrom two different positions , interests and intentions each against other .
CIRCUITY OF ACTION plea of a defence needing an overtime than thestrictly necessary to be prepared . From latin ” circuitus ” = orbit , round. The orbit is the round run by earth around solar system and therefore, and more wide is this orbit, more time is need to complete the orbit turn. Therefore, in figurative sense, with a circuity of action, the lawyer is trying to delay the pre-trial phase of the case, with a set of postponement befor the trial beginning.
CLAIM petition , right vindication , petition for damages. From latin “ clamare ” = to tell with loud voice , to invoke repeatedly . Here , in thefigurative sense, is meaning to use a loud voice with the aim to got own’s right heard.
CONCURRENCE (C. OF CASE, OF CHARGES , OF CIRCUMSTANCES, IN A CRIME contribution of, complicity in (crime,charges) . From latin ” cum ” = with, together / ” currere ” = to run in the same direction , to walk at side .
CONFEDERACY association settled to commit crimes, illegal collusion.From latin ” cum ” = with , together / ” foedus “ = alliance, pact, agreement.
CONFEDERATION association among many States. From latin “ cum ” =with, together / ” foedus ” = pact, agreement .
CONDOMINIUM joint ownership , co-ownership . From latin “ cum ” =with , together / “dominus ” = proprietor, owner . In fact, even in modern italian, the sunday day is called “domenica” , because the day of god, in figurative sense, the owner of the world.
COVENANT unilateral or bilateral promise, contract or pact among a smallnumber of party . From latin ” conventum ” = agreed , gathered together.
CROSS EXAMINATION questioning made by the lawyer of opponent party(eg: cross examination of two witnesses = simultaneous questioning of two witnessess ) . From latin ” crux ” = cross / ” examinare ” = to give a worth, to weight
COSTUME IMMORAL BEHAVIOUR way to act against the commonmorality . From latin “moris ” = usual, been in habit . Here in the figurate sense of behaviour against the usual way of behaviour of a people.
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGE secondary damage as outcome of a wrongaction , indirect loss . From latin ” consequentia ” = outcome . Or from latin ” cum “= with, together / “sequor ” = i follow you , i come after you. In fact the consequential damage is a damage following or coming after the direct damage.
CREDIT position protected by law , concerning a subject in an economicactive position versus another subject , a subject having a right to receive something or a performance by another subject. From latin ” creditus ” = lent, delivered, consigned , believed.
CRIMINAL ACTION action concerning a crime, an offence . From latin “ crimen ” = guiltyness , accuse .
CULPABLE OFFENCE offence made without willfulness, made bynegligence or careless. From latin ” culpare “ = to reproach.
CURATIVE STATUTE law issued with the aim to repair the wrong effects ofa former improper law. From latin ” curare ” = to be worry for someone / from modern italian “curare “ = take care of, follow a treatment .
CUSTODIAL ORDER order issued by a court and involving the keeping ofa person or item deemed evidence of a crime or warranty (in favour of creditor ) of a future performance. Es: cautelary custody order of a suspect person, custody order of a little bag containing drug substance ) . From latin ” cum ” = with / “studiose ” = diligence.