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ILLEGAL ACTION OR CONDUCT action not authorized by law, byregulation or rule, therefore an action or behaviour going beyond the law border. From latin ” in ” = against / ” legalis ” = according to law.


ILLICIT CONDUCT conduct not allowed by law, outlaw conduct. From latin” illicitus ” = forbidden ( licere = to be permitted. From this word, is coming the english term “licence”= permit) / ” cum ” = with / ” ducere ” = to lead . Therefore, to lead oneself to do a forbidden conduct.


ILLUSORY CONTRACT legal document containing a language involving anobligation or performance commitment, but actually it doesn’t oblige at least one of the party to do any performance. Usually the performance is described in promissory conditions, there fore the promisor can choose to fulfil or not the performance because too vague or impossible to do . From latin ” illusus ” = mocked.


ILLUSORY TRUST condition of contract, ostensibly involving a enpower oftrustee, but actually inconsistent because the settlor keeps an high control on the property, therefore he is not surrendering any right to the trustee. From latin ” illusus ” = mocked.


IMMATERIAL EVIDENCE evidence, proof lacking of probatory value.From latin ” in ” = against, not / ” materia ” = substance, matter.


IMMUNITY FROM PROSECUTION special status conferred to a person ,putting him subject in the condition of freedom concerning a duty performance or From latin ” in ” = not / ” munus ” = charge / ” pro ” = having a function of / ” secutus ” = pursued . Therefore, the figurative meaning is the not- chargeability of a person, even if pursued because committed a crime.


IMPAIRED CAPITAL company capital having a net value smaller than thecapital originally invested. From latin ” impar ” = uneven, not equal.


IMPARTIAL JURY jury acting without preference or bias towards allparties in a dispute or lawsuit. From latin ” in ” = not / ” partite ” = not individually. Therefore, jury that doesn’t make individual preference among the parties.


IMPEACHMENT accusation brought against a public officer, provided for apossible removal from the office . From latin ” in ” = towards to / ” peccare ” = to make a mistake, to be wrong . Therefore, in figurative sense, is meaning a conduct made towards a mistake, or in wrong manner. In fact, is possible even to impeach a witness or a verdict if , during a process there was something irregular.


IMPEDIMENT BY LAW kind of obstacle provided by law , involving adisqualification to assert one’s right or to entry in legal relationship with someone or something. More possible origins. First from latin ” in ” = inside / ” pedica ” = noose , snare. In figurative sense, the aim of an obstacle is to stop the “legal walking” of the right claimant. Or also from latin ” impedimentum ” = load , luggage used by the army in the old roman empire consisting in a vehicle full of heavy weapons and for this reason slowing down the soldiers march. In figurative sense, the march is the walking of the claimant toward the award of his right.



 TITLE legal deed defective in some element required by law. The rightderivating by this deed, is unforceable because lacking in some essential part . From latin ” in ” = not / ” perfectus ” = lack of fault.


IMPERSONATION false representation of oneself as possessor of publicoffice , licence required , lien , skill. From latin ” in ” = inside / ” persona ” = human being, person. Therefore, figuratively , to go inside the personality of another, inside his uniform or title.


IMPLIED THROUGH DEED kind of deed having a set of not -explicitterms or condition but these last are implicit in the contract matter and contractors mind. ( example = implied deed, implied agency, implied contract, implied consent ). From latin ” in ” = inside / ” plicare ” = wrapped up ( figuratively, wrapped up in the contract ).


IMPOSSIBILITY ( SUPERVENING I. ) supervening not capability ofperformance due to natural occurrence or event, not depending from the human will . From latin ” in ” = not / ” possum ” = to can / ” supra ” = after / ” venire ” = to arrive.


IMPOSTER person declaring to be another, usually with intention to getdefrauding or deceiving aim. From latin ” in ” = inside / ” positura ” = situation . Therefore, figuratively inside the situation or condition of another person.


IMPUNITY exemption from punishment , not liability for a criminalconduct. From latin “in ” = not / ” poena ” = punishment.


IMPUTE (TO ) to charge a person with responsibility or liability for acriminal conduct made by another. From latin ” in ” = inside / ” putare ” = to deem. In figurative sense, to deem a person, not perpetrating the crime, involved inside the criminal conduct.


IMPUTED NEGLIGENCE charging to a person of the negligence orcareless of another person . Eg : the negligence of employee is imputed to his employer. From latin ” in ” = inside / ” putare ” = to deem . In figurative sense, to deem a person, not perpetrating the crime, involved inside the criminal negligent conduct .


INALIENABLE RIGHTS rights incapable to be sold or transferred fromone subject of right to another subject of right (eg : State’s property right upon a public bridge, or fundamental right granted by the constitution). From latin ” in ” = not / ” alienus ” = out, foreigner, far from a center / ” habilis ” = to be able to.


IN CAMERA ( HEARING IN C. ) type of hearing celebrated in a judge’schamber, not in public court room, therefore with the public exclusion. From latin ” in ” = inside / ” camera ” = room .


INCAPACITY ( LEGAL I. ) inhability to exercise a right available to otherssubject because of any impediment or condition due to lack of maturity or legal title (eg : underaged children or mentally insane people ) . From latin ” in ” = not / “ capacitas ” = skill.


INCARCERATION imprisonment or confinement of a person . From latin “ in ” = inside / “ carcer ” = prison.


INCEST sexual illegal relationship or intercourse between two members of afamily. From latin ” in ” not / ” castus ” = morally pure.


INCHOATED OFFENCE criminal action only partly executed , thereforehas been become the first step of illegal conduct that is opening the way, put the basis to committ another crime (eg: conspiracy offence ). From latin ” inchoatum ” = begun.


INCIDENTAL ASSUMPTION OF EVIDENCE evidence assumed beforethe trial, because the assumption in the future, can be impossible or very difficult. Eg : a witness suffering of an heavy illness, that in near future , possibly , will be dead. From latin ” incidere ” = to happen / ” assumere ” = to take .


INCIDENTAL BENEFICIARY OF THE CONTRACT third party ,external to the contract stipulated between to other parties who derives an unintended benefit from the contract. Therefore, the settlement has an further effect attached to the main. From latin ” incidere ” = to happen / ” bene ” = well, good / ” facere ” = to do.


INCIDENTAL DAMAGES compensation provided by uniform commercialcode to cover the cost met by a contract party who has been damaged by the other party for a contract breach (eg: cost met for the transportation of the goods ). From latin “incidere” = to happen.


INCITE TO RIOT instigation , fomentatio, solicitatio to commit a riot . Fromlatin “citatus” = excited .


INCOMPETENT EVIDENCE evidence not according to the rule of evidence, therefore not admissible. From latin ” in ” = not / ” competitum ” = applied to (impossible to be applied to a trial ).


INCONVENIENT FORUM inappropriate lawcourt formally competent fora trial or proceeding but usually not suggestable because having a venue too far from the parties residence. From latin ” in ” = not / ” cum ” = together / ” venire ” = to come. Therefore a trial venue not suitable for the parties that , in figurative sense, have to coming together in a lawcourt.


INCORPORATION formation of legal entity recognized by the state havinga limited investors liability. From latin ” in ” = got / ” corpus ” = substance .


INCORPOREAL ASSET goods having a worth but not a physical form (eg: apatent right). From latin ” in ” = not / ” corpus ” = material substance.


INCORPOREAL HEREDITAMENT anything inheritable which has nottangible form. Eg: the income owing from exploitation of patent right . From latin ” in ” = not / ” corpus ” = material substance.


 INCORRIGIBLE DELINQUENT uncorrectable or not reformableoffender. From latin “in“= not / ” corrigere ” = to get better . Also from ” rigare ” = to channel. Therefore, to channel , to converge in the right way.


INCRIMINATION accusation of a crime or acknowledgement that a crimehas been committed. From latin ” in ” = inside / ” criminatio ” = accusation.


INCULPATORY EVIDENCE in criminal law, is the evidence able todemonstrate that the defendant is guilty. From latin ” culpatio ” = reproach , or from ” culpa ” = fault.


INCUMBENT HOLDER (OF AN OFFICE OR TITLE ) present officeholder legally appointed to perform the duties concerning his office or title. From latin ” incumbere” = to apply oneself. In figurative sense, is office holder self applied to a task.


INCURRING LIABILITIES becoming subject to liability, becoming liable .From latin “incurrere ” = to run towards, to run into.


IN CUSTODY ( PERSON ) person suspected and accused of crime oreventually charged with a crime , under the police restraint order, breaching is freedom. In U.S.A is claimable as law article named “miranda rule “. From latin ” custodia “= surveillance.


INDEFEASIBLE RIGHT right or lien not capable to being nullified orvoided . Eg: irrevocable interest in property right. From latin ” indefessus ” = never tired. Here,in figurate sense, is meaning a right having a particular resistance to any legal hindrance. (eg: right not subject to prescription ).


INDEMNIFY to give a reimbursement to compensate losses or damages dueto harmful conduct or accident . From latin ” indemnis ” = unhurt.


INDENTURE DOCUMENT official document executed in two or morecopies. From latin ” dentis ” = teeth. In fact the teeth are two or more and even are more and less similar. Also, from latin ” identidem ” = repeatedly ( therefore a copy made several times ).


INDENTURE TRUSTEE person appointed by trustship giver having theduty to defend , in any occasion, the interest of the debenture holders. From latin ” dentis ” = teeth. In fact the teeth are two or more and even are more and less similar.From latin ” identidem ” = repeatedly (therefore, if necessary, a defence concernig a range of repeated situation).


INDEX part of book summarizing and referring the contents of the book bycategories that has been alphabetically settled. From latin ” index ” = signal.


INDICIA ( CIRCUMSTANCIAL EVIDENCE ) evidence tending tosuggest the reliability of a fact or relationship , but not having a sufficient probatory strenght as evidence . From latin ” indicium ” = signal / ” circum” = around / ” stare ” = to stay. Therefore, a fact or situation that was standing around and near the fact under trial.


INDICIA OF TITLE document suggesting the ownership of good or estatebut not confirming it. From latin ” indicium ” = signal . Called also ” fumus boni iuris ” (literally “smoke of good right ” . In figurative sense, the smoke isrepresenting the existence of a right actionated ).


INDICTMENT ( BILL OF I.) formal document containing an accusation ofa crime , therefore articles charging somebody with a crime . From latin ” indictum ” = convened. In figurative sense, convened by the judge.


INDIGENT DEFENDANT defendant stated as unable to pay the legalservice performed by a lawyers, therefore, under application, the lawcourt will appoint a lawyer free of cost. From latin ” indigere ” = to need , to be lacking of.


INDISPENSABLE PARTY party of a trial whose interests is essential to geta whole and complete determination of all claims arising in any litigation or proceeding. From latin “in ” = not able to / ” dispendium ” = loss, damage . Therefore , in figurative meaning, the presence of this party in not able to be lost.


INDUCEMENT TO INFRINGEMENT conduct made by a person who is motivating someone to commit a crime or also a consideration for entering into a contract or other kind of legal relationship. From latin ” in ” = towards / ” ducere ” = to lead.


INEVITABLE ACCIDENT fact not avoidable by any human being, eventnot avoidable neither with the maximum rate of diligence, because external circumstances is going beyond the avoidability. From latin ” in ” = not able to be / ” evitare ” = to avoid.


INEVITABLE DISCOVERY in criminal law, is the discovery of aunforeseen evidence, during a unlawful rummaging (eg: unauthorized or unwarranted search permit ). The evidence found in this way is able to be admitted. From latin ” in ” = not able to be / “evitare ” = to avoid / ” disco ” = i learn, i know .


INFAMOUS CRIME kind of criminal conduct that is involving a shamefulreputation for the offender (eg : crime of sexual harrassment ). From latin ” infamia ” = shame, bad public opinion.


INFANTICIDE killing of a child after his birth. From latin “ infantis “= of achild / “caedere” = to kill ( killing of a child ) .


INFERENCE deduction or finding of a fact or conclusion from a set of otherfacts presented as evidence, therefore facts known or proven. From latin ” in ” = inside / “ferre” = to bring . Therefore a fact brought inside the trial.


INFLAMMATORY CONDUCT criminal conduct aimed to induce violenceor public riots . From latin ” flamma ” = enthusiasm.


INFORMANT ( INFORMER ) person informing the police , as confidentialsource of news, of the misconduct or wrong behaviour or intention of another person. From latin “informatio” = explanation . In italian modern legal language is called ” delazione confidenziale ” . From latin ” delator ” = spy.


INFORMATION accusation of the commission of crime issued against aperson, by competente public officer appointed by law to this duty (usually the prosecutor). From latin ” informatio “ = explanation. Therefore, means that the crime has been explaned by the police to the prosecutor.


INFORMATIONAL PICKETING form of particular activity made by tradeunion association aimed to make known the activity of an employer directed against a category of labourers. From latin ” informatio ” = explanation , and from old french “piquet ” = pointed stake, pierced. In the middle age therewas a tactical military defence of a land against the enemy cavalry. This defence , involved the pierced of the land by means of sharped sticks, to break the running of the cavalry . Now , in figurative sense, the sticks represents the striking labourers put together and the land is representing the factory. Therefore, the labourers, lined together at the gate of a factory with the aim to impede the entrance to the others.


INFORMATION AND BELIEF legal term indicating that the personsponsoring a pleading or an affidavit has not a personal acknowledgement of the statement made, but even if there is this situation, he believe , trusting in good faith, that the facts stated are true. From latin ” informatio ” = explanation .


INFRACTION violation or breach of contract , law, duty, regulation, statute.The infraction is punishable only with a imposed fine to pay. From latin “infractum ” = broken . In figurative sense, the ban imposed by law has been broken.


INFRINGEMENT unauthorized usurpation , violation or trespassing ofproperty right of anothers or rights of another (even the intellectual property ). From latin ” frangere “= to violate.


INHERITANCE acquisition of title representing the ownership of real orpersonal property, due to the declarations in a will or the dispositions issude by the law of intestacy. From latin ” in ” = with, inside / ” herere ” = to unite, to join. Here , in figurative sense, means that the estate of the heir is united to the estate of the testator. From this root , is coming the latin term ” haereditas ” = inheritance.


INITIATIVE RIGHT right granted by constitution about a political process involving the general electorate (by the collection of signatures ) to propose a new set of rules , a new legislation or constitutional changes or reviews . From latin ” initiare ” = to begin. Therefore, law proposed firstly by general electorate.


INJUNCTION a remedy afforded by courts of equity with the aim to protecta plaintiff from imminent and irreparable injury to his property or rights in case of treathen by acts or impending acts of the defendant. With the injunction, the court orders to the defendant to refrain or desist from committing or continuing the action complained or to undo the effect and cause of a wrong action already committed. From latin “iniunctum ” = imposed.


INJUNCTION PENDENTE LITE temporary remedy afforded and issuedby judge , upon plaintiff application , intercurring a law suit, restraining the defendant frome some action complained (it’s not a final disposition ). From latin ” iniunctum ” = imposed / “pendeo ” = i am undecided . In fact this form of injunction, is a temporary but not final decision issued by judge.


INJURY , INJURIOUS any action causing harm or loss to another, invasionof interest or right belonging to another. From latin ” in ” = not / ” iure ” = fairly, rightly.


IN LIMINE (MOTION) motion started in a pre-trial phase of legal action,aimed to prevent an opposing counsel from referring to evidence which may be irrelevant or prejudiced because possible trial slowness. From latin ” limen” = entrance of an home, threshold. Here in figurative sense, the home is representing the lawcourt, and the entrance the beginning of the trial.


INNOCENCE absence of guilty , determined by judge or jury about thecommission of a crime . From latin ” in ” = not ” / ” nocens ” = harmful.


INNUENDO in action for slander or libel , part of the complaint which useswords having defamatory meanings or insinuations. From latin ” innuere ” = to make a sign or signal.


 INOPERATIVE RULE ineffective law, law or rule without legalconsequences, rule not effectively enforced. From latin ” operari ” = to work.


IN PERSONAM (PLEADING OR ACTION ) type of pleading or actionrequiring jurisdiction over the defendant (the person). In fact the courts usually orders directly to the defendendant to do or not do, or to refrain from doing some illegal conduct. From latin ” persona ” = physical person.


INQUEST official investigation executed by public body appointed by thecourt with the aim to get a determination of the facts or circumstances surrounding the a criminal event. From latin ” in ” = inside / ” quaestio ” = to ask . Therefore, to ask information regarding a fact.


INQUIRY formal investigation made by a prosecutorial committee on amatter of public interest . This activity is aimed to the search for facts, informations, evidences. From latin ” inquirere ” = to seek, to search.


INQUISITION old fashioned term indicating the activity of catholic churchdirectly to elimination of heresy and his followers. In italian modern language, ” inquisire ” is meaning to process a subject without affordance of fundamental right of the defence. In fact, the function of judge and prosecutor was concentrated in one only subject. From latin ” santa inquisitione ” = holy catholic tribunal in the fifteenth century.


IN REM JURISDICTION rule giving to a lawcourt the controlling orrestraining power over a item or property, because more parties are claiming the ownership and the determination of this ownership is yet pending. From latin ” rem ” = thing, item / “juris” = right, law / ” dicere ” = to pronounce. Therefore the pronuncement of the law over a item.


INSECURITY CLAUSE clause or condition in a contract or other kind oflegal document permitting to a party to claim to the other the immediate payment, because in the future there is a possibility to be damaged by counterpart unfulfilment. From latin ” in ” = not / ” securitas ” = tranquillity , safety.


INSOLVENCY position in which is involved a debtor that is unable to payhis debts, or the position in which is an enterpreuner incapable to meet the financial obligation of his firm. From latin ” in ” = not / ” solvere ” = to untie. Therefore , in figurative meaning, the relationship between creditor and debtor is not yet untied, is yet bound because the consideration has been not satisfied.


INSPECTION examination of goods , documents or property made by apublic body representant , legally appointed and authorized . From latin ” in ” = inside / ” spectare” = to look . Therefore, the inspector is a person that is looking a thing, and at the end, he has a duty to compile a report.


INSTANTER PLEADING pleading ordered by judge , authorizating alawyer to file suddenly the concerning documents. From latin ” instantia ” = imminence.


INSTITUTE collection of laws, set of rules or principles. From latin “ institutum ” = organization, establishment.


INSTRUCTIONS OF THE JUDGE advice issued by judge , direct to thejury, concerning clarification about the rule of law controlling the future examined evidence. From latin “instruere ” = to teach. Here , in figurative sense, the judge teachs to the jury member (not having technical skills about the law) how to value the evidence. (In fact, in italian modern language, the italian educational department is called ” ministero della pubblica istruzione “).


INSTRUMENT (LEGAL ) legal document fixing rights, duty or obligations(eg: deeds, mortgages. From latin ” in ” directed to / ” strumentum ” = tool. Therefore, a tool used to set up a legal relationship between two or more parties.


INSTRUMENT (NEGOTIABLE I.) note , cheque or draft containing anunconditional promise to pay , at a determinate time, an agreed amount of money to the holder of the instrument. From latin ” in ” directed to / ” strumentum ” = tool. Therefore, a tool used to set up a legal relationship between two or more parties.


INSULAR COURTS federal courts having a jurisdictional competence in theinsular possession of the United States. From latin ” insula ” = island.


INSURRECTION locally placed riot or rising up against any publicauthority. From latin “in ” = against / ” surrectum ” = risen. In figurate sense, a demonstration made by a group of people rising own’s rights with the aim to show them to the public power.


INTANGIBLE ASSETS OR RIGHTS type of assets, worth or rightphysically not touchable , not existent, but evidenced by receipt or document containing informations about it. Eg: patent right. From latin ” in ” = not / ” tangere ” = to touch.


INTEGRATED CONTRACT type of document used by the parties involvedin a former contract , with the aim to give ulterior informations about the contract terms or conditions (eg: a contract containing instruction about the practical execution of the performance ). From latin ” integratum ” = taken again. In figurative sense, the parties are taking again the examination of the theirs settlement.


INTENT term used both in the law of tort and in criminal law. In the firstcase, is the conscious decision to have a conduct that will injure another person. In the second case, is a necessary element of any not culpable offence, that has to be proved by prosecutor, to get the declaration of guilt. From latin ” in ” = towards / ” tentum ” = aimed. Therefore, a conduct aimed towards a result.


INTERCEPTION OF COMMUNICATION conduct aimed to hear theconversation between two person over any kind of communication (eg: phone, web chat ). From latin ” inter ” = between / ” captum ” = got , understood (in the figurative sense to understand the contents of communication ).


INTERDICTION ban or prohibition order issued by a public authority. Eg :interdiction from holding a public office. From latin ” inter ” = among / “dictum ” = established. Here, in figurative sense, the order issued by public power is establishing the ban of a person to stay among the others holders of public office.


INTERFERENCE in patent law an interference is a proceeding conduct bythe board of patents appeals to determine conflicting claims among competing applicants. In the law of torts , when a party intentionally interferes in the right of another party, causing a financial loss, there is a so called interference with contractual relationship. From latin “intra ” = between / ” ferre ” = to bring . In figurative sense there is an hindrance between the claimant and the right claimed.


INTERIM ORDER order issued by public body having temporary effect ,momentaneous validity. From latin ” interim ” = for the moment.


INTERLOCUTORY DECISION decision or decree occuring during thecourse of litigation , necessary for the resolution of an intervening issue . This decision is purely temporary, in fact is not the conclusive determination of the rights of the parties . From latin ” inter” = between / ” locutus ” = spoken. In figurate sense, a matter which the judge speak between the beginning and the end of the trial.


INTERMEDIARY person acting with the aim to resolve a dispute betweentwo opposite parties (eg : member of conciliation board ). From latin ” inter ” = between / ” medium ” = middle. Therefore, a third party between two litigants.


INTERMEDIATE SCRUTINY judicial scrutiny of a statute put between thebasis scrutiny and advanced scrutiny. This scrutiny is concerning a statute under the equal protection clause provided by constitution. From latin ” inter” = between / “medium ” = middle / ” scrutatio ” = examination.


INTERMEDIATE COURT name given to the appeal court because itsposition is between lowcourt and highest court. From latin ” inter ” = between / ” medium ” = middle.


INTERNAL AUDIT examination about financial affairs and record of acompany , performed by its own staff (without intervention of external auditors ) . From latin “internum ” = inward , indoor.


INTERPRETATIVE RULE law issued with the aim to give an uniforminterpretation to the meaning of another law formerly issued. From latin ” interpretare ” = to translate, to explane (in figurative sense, to translatefrom the language used by the draftsman of the law to the language used by the people) . Also , from latin ” inter ” = among / “pretium ” = worth . In figurative sense : to give a worth on a specific meaning among a lot of different possible meanings of a law text.


INTERROGATE questioning of a person suspected to be maker of a crime ,made by police. From latin ” interrogatum ” = accused, but also from latin ” inter ” = among / “ rogatio ” = question, asking. Therefore, to ask to theperson a lot of questions among the facts concerning the crime.


INTERROGATORIES legal instrument used in the pretrial phase by lawyerof a party, consisting in a set of question directed to the party or his witness. From latin “interrogatum ” = accused.


INTER SE LIABILITY kind of liability involving two or more parties eachother , that are tied in a legal relationship concerning only them. Eg : liability inside a partnership legal relations between two partners. From latin ” inter ” = between / “se ” = themselves.


INTERVENTION enter of a third party (not originally involved ) in a lawsuit with the aim to support or corroborate the claims of one former existing party. From latin “inter ” = between / ” venutum ” = came from. In figurative sense, an intervention came from outward , between the original litigants.


INTERVENING CAUSE event following an illegal conduct . Fact followingthe wrong action, intervened in a second moment and contributing to increase the loss entity or aggravating the injury. Eg: a man bashes another in the middle of a road , leaves him there,and in the second moment a car runs over him. From latin “inter ” = between / “venutum ” = came from. In figurative sense, an intervention of second subject in a wrong action , between the beginning of conduct and its end.


INTESTABLE subject not able to be a witness or not able or competent tomake a will ( therefore subject not able to do a testimony or to do a testamentary document. In italian modern language, the word ” testa ” means ” head ” ). Therefore, a intestable subject is not able to make a will and choose a person , a ” head ” . From latin ” in ” = not / ” testari ” = to make a will .


INTESTACY act of dying without a will or with an invalid will . The subjecttaking the property of estate involved in the will, are determined by the state law . From latin ” in” = not / ” testatus ” = object of a will / ” agessi = i added ( latin verb “aggerere ” = to add). Therefore, in figurative sense, the State added the name of heir because lacking in the testamentary document.


INTIMIDATION criminal conduct directed to obtain by other something bymeans of threaten or violence. From latin ” in ” = in direction of / ” timidus ” = someone having fear of . Therefore the intimidation is a conduct similar to a threaten aimed to frighten someone.


INTRINSIC EVIDENCE proof contained entirely within a writing ordocument but not externally used ( eg : the information contained in a document regarding a selling / buying of an home, is a proof of a civil status of a person). From latin ” intra ” = inside / “non ” = not / ” secus ” = differently. Therefore literally ” inside is not different “. In figurative sense is meaning that inside the document there is another matter not different from the documental evidence.


INTRINSIC FRAUD activity made by a party with deceiving intent againstthe other parties. Eg: the introduction of false documents in the trial. From latin ” intra ” = inside / ” in ” = not / ” secus ” = differently / ” fraudis ” = of a trick, of a muddle. Therefore literally ” inside is not different “. In figurative sense , inside the activity there is an intend not different of a trick , of a fraudulent intent.


INTRUSION wrongful action consisting in an unauthorized entry in aproperty or land of another. From latin ” in ” = inside / ” trusum ” = pushed.


INTRUSIVE ACTION wrongful action committed by a person withoutconsent or permission of those affected. From latin ” in ” = inside / ” trusum” = pushed.


INVADENT SPENDING unauthorized spending of a fund of money for apurpose not formerly intended. From latin ” in ” = in another place, beyond the border / ” vado ” = to pass through , to go beyond. Therefore a money spending going beyond the purpose initially agreed.


INVALIDATE A DOCUMENT to nullify a document, to make illegal, tostate a document not enforceable. From latin ” in ” = not / ” validus ” = effective .


INVASION OF PRIVACY term used in the law of tort, indicating severalkinds of illegal conducts involving an intrusion upon a person’s right to privacy (eg: wiretapping to record a conversation, publication of details of private life when are not need, usurpation of a person’s identity ). From latin From latin ” in ” = inside / ” vado ” = to pass through. Therefore, to go across the private life of another.


INVENTORY kind of schedule showing all the assets or property of anidentified entity or person, with valuation made at stated cost or at market cost. From latin ” inventus ” = discovery . Therefore this kind of document is discovery the acknowledge all the real estate belonging to a person.


INVENTORY SEARCH kind of rummaging conduct by police , lacking awarrant, following the seizure of an item such a motorvehicle, aimed to find something of illegal among all list of motorvehicle components. From latin ” inventus ” = discovery . Therefore an activity aimed to discovery something of illegal.


INVESTIGATION examination and surveying of all fact and circumstancessurrounding a crime aimed to the identification of the guilty and the establishment of the probable causes. From latin ” vestigare ” = to follow the feet print or the track left by someone. Also from latin ” in ” = inside / ” vestitus ” = dress. In figurative sense, the dress is the matter , the case, andthe investigator has the task to watch inside this dress.


INVESTITURE act of conferring to a person the symbol of office to be kept.Eg : to appoint someone as army captain and the consequential delivery of the uniform From latin ” in ” = inside / ” vestitus ” = covered , dressed.


INVITEE ( BUSINESS I. ) invite made by the owner of a land to a farmer,aimed to do business concerning the joined cropping of the land. From latin “invitare ” = to give an accomodation.


INVOCATION action enforcing or corroborating a legal claim or right (eg :the invocation of a specified article of a law or a constitutional provision ). From latin ” in ” = inside / ” vocatus ” = called . Therefore , in a figurative sense, is an article of law called to go inside the trial.


INVOLUNTARY CONFESSION confession that has been extorted orinduced through fraud, deceive or threat. From latin ” in ” = without / ” voluntaris ” = will .


INVOLUNTARY MANSLAUGHTER unintended killing due purely toreckless or careless conduct by the defendant or other kind of his negligence. From latin ” in ” = without / ” voluntaris ” = will .


INVOLUNTARY BANKRUPTICY type of proceeding in the bankrupticycourt initiated with a petition claimed by creditors ( unwillingl by the debtor ). From latin ” in ” = without / ” voluntaris ” = will .


IRRATIONAL SIGNATURE signature put by a subject in a status of mentaldisorder , without faculty to reason or understanding the effects of his action. From latin ” in ” = not / ” rationalis ” = reasonable, justifiable. Also from latin “erratus ” = mistake / ” rationalis ” reasonable. Therefore, something wrong for a reasonable think.


IRRATIONAL SEARCHING OR RUMMAGING unlawful searching or rummagin upon a person or item because abusive or lacking the authorization or warranty. From latin ” in “= not / ” rationalis ” = reasonable, justifiable.


IRREPARABLE INJURY any type of harm incapable or very difficult to beproperly compensated in money . From latin ” in ” = not / ” re ” = again / ” paratus ” = equipped. Therefore not able to be repaired , to be equipeed again .


IRRESISTIBLE FORCE unforeseeable event which can not be avoided . Eg:a agreement involving a supply of foodstuffs, has been breach by a flood that destroyed the store in which the foodstuffs were stored. From latin ” in ” = not / ” resistere ” = to oppose.


IRRESISTIBLE IMPULSE temporary and sudden mental status that isproducing a mental disorder and involves an not avoidable aggressivity outcoming in a criminal conduct. From latin ” in ” = not / ” resistere ” = to oppose.


IRREVERSIBLE DECISION conclusive statement or sentence not affordedto be changed. From latin ” in ” = not / ” re ” = again / ” versum ” = changed, transformed.


IRREVOCABLE OFFER offer not be able to be revoked or pulled back by aparty in a contract proposal. From latin ” in ” = not / ” retro ” = back , again / “vocare” = to call, to renew.


IRREVOCABLE LETTER OF CREDIT commitment to pay which remainsoutstanding until it is utilized by payee or beneficiary. From latin ” in ” = not / ” retro ” = again , back / ” vocare ” = to call , to renew.


ISSUE term having several meanings : distribution of statement ordocument, official proclamation of a law , put in circulation of a currency, delivering of a pleading to the party named, point of fact or law advanced by one party and disputed by other party ( eg: issued of fact is decided by the jury, issue of law is decided by judge because having the technical skills ) . The ethimology is various. First of all, from latin ” emissus ” = gone out, sent out, emitted. Second possibility, from latin ” issus ” = ordered by . In fact for example, a legal measure is issued by judge, the put in circulation of currency is issued by a government or central bank. Also from italian ” issare ” = to lift. Here in figurative sense an issue of law is the matter risen during the examination of the law intent.






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