NATION term indicating a group of people having common history, customs,language and occupying the same territory for a long period. From latin ” natus ” = to be born. Therefore a group of people born in the same territory.
NATURALIZATION process aimed to acquire the citizenship by a foreigncitizen born in another country. From latin ” naturalis ” = produced by birth ( in figurative sense , a naturalized citizen is equal to another citizen birth in the naturalizer country).
NATURAL OBJECT in the law of intestacy, this term is indicating thenatural or artificial person or entity that probably will be chosen by the testator as beneficiary or heir. From latin ” naturalis ” = spontaneous.
NATURAL PERSON human being, human person (term used to distinguishfrom the artificial person as a corporation ). From latin ” naturalis ” = produced by birth.
NATURAL RIGHTS rights granted to all people as provided by fundamentalconstitutional provisions . From latin ” naturalis ” = produced by birth / “recte ” = good, well.
NECESSARY AND PROPER CLAUSE clause provided by constitutionalprovisions, empowering the congress to perform its basic duty and enumerating its basic general powers. From latin ” ne ” = not / ” cessare ” = to end. Therfore, the basic powers of congress are unable to be stopped and never subject to end.
NECESSITY ( STATE OF N. ) situtation in which is a person committing acrime compelled to do it by an sudden danger , therefore making a justifiable defence of his or other person. From latin ” ne ” = not / ” cessare ” = to end. Therfore, an conduct strictly need , that must not to end beacuse compelled by an imminent and dangerous situation.
NEGATIVE COVENANT provision usually present in an employmentagreement, in which the employee states that, during the period of employment relationship , he will not make an activity contrary to the employer interest ( in Italy , it’s named also ” patto di non concorrenza ” = agreement of no competition). From latin ” negare ” = to refuse. Therefore the employee has a duty to refuse any offer made by another employer operating in a business branch similar to the first employer.
NEGATIVE EASEMENT provision present in agreement , in which theowner of a land or real estate , covenants with the owner of close land , to not do anything that could be an obstacle to the easement involving the land . Eg: negative easement to do not obstruct the passage to the user of a property situated near his land. From latin ” negare ” = to refuse.
NEGLECT failure to perform an act or action consisting in a recklessness,omission or refusal. From latin ” neglectum ” = omitted , careless. The term is composed by ” nemine ” = nothing / ” lectus ” = chosen. In figurative sense the neglector doesn’t choose to do any kind of action.
NEGLIGENCE in the performance of one’s duty, is called negligence aconduct made in a way under the standard level of reasonableness applied by any courts or common sense. From latin ” negligentia ” = carelessness. The term is composed by ” neglectum ” = omitted , careless / ” agere ” = to take care of.
NEGLIGENT HOMICIDE death of another person caused by a subjectwithout intent to kill, but as result of a negligent or careless conduct. From latin ” From latin ” negligentia ” = carelessness / ” hominis ” = of a man / “caedere ” = to kill. “ Negligentia ” = term composed by “ neglectus ” =omitted, careless / ” agere ” = to take care of.
NEGOTIABLE LEGAL INSTRUMENT commercial deed or document (ascheques, notes or bill of lading ) able to be transferred by a owner to another by delivery , sell or endorsement . From latin ” negotiari ” = to buy, to purchase / ” legalis ” = according to law / ” instrumentum ” = tool , device.
NEGOTIABLE NOTE unconditional promise to pay a specific amount ofmoney at a specified time , issued by the maker to order or to bearer. From latin ” negotiari ” = to buy, to purchase .
NEGOTIATIONS first steps run by contract parties to get an agreement orcontract, preliminary figurative contract between parties able to be involved in agreement. From latin ” negotiari ” = to trade.
NEPOTISM conduct of favouritism in the appointment of a publicemployment, based on family relationship. From latin ” nepos ” = grandson, descendant.
NEUTRAL COUNTRY country not involved in a dispute among two ormore countries (eg: switzerland or sweden in the two world wars ). From latin ” neutro ” = neither in a direction, nor in other direction.
NIENT CULPABLE statement declaring a person not guilty. From latin “ ni” = if not / “culpa ” = fault, blame.
NOMINAL DEFENDANT defendant in a trial not because directly involvedin a crime, but only because representant an opposite side against the plaintiff interest. Eg : the chief executive officer is a nominal defendant , as legal representant, in case of claims against the company . From latin ” nominare” = to give a name to / ” defendere ” = to protect (therefore appointed to defend the company’s interest in case ) .
NOMINAL DAMAGES very little amount of money granted by the court tothe wronged party as symbol of recognizance of a loss. From latin “nominare ” = to give a name to / “ damnum ” = loss.
NOMINATION designation for a position or office . From latin “ nominare” = to give a name to.
NONCONFORMING USE term concerning a building or parcel of landused with infringement of zoning rules managing this land or area. Eg : a land allowed to be agricultural land, has been used as building area ). From latin ” non ” = not / “ cum ” = with / “ forma ” = shape / “ usare ” = to use. Infigurative sense is a use of a building not according with the ” shape ” of the law.
NON CONTRIBUTORY PENSION amount of money periodically payed tono working person, that during is life , didn’t have a job , therefore did not pay the contributive figure for the pension , and the retirement wage is granted by social security system. From latin ” non ” = not / ” tributus ” = shared.
NON FEASANCE failure to perform an action or duty which is required ofan agent or public officer. From latin ” non ” = not / ” facere ” = to do, to make. In fact the , to say not made , implicitly means omitted.
NONSUIT order issued by judge stating the termination of process, due tothe plaintiff failure to do the first step of a case or to prosecute the case diligently. From latin ” non” = not / ” suetus ” = to be in habit to. In figurative sense a legal suit is a proceeding that to the parties in a litigation is in habit to follow with the aim to reach the final result of a sentence.
NOTARY public officer having the task of attending , attesting and recordingthe laydown and execution of legal deed or document. From latin ” notum ” = public / “ars” = job , task . In fact, the notary has the task to render a document publicly acknowledged.
NOTICE document used by a lawyer aimed to inform a party or a officer thatsome proceeding is involving him. From latin ” notum ” = public / ” iacere ” = to spread. In fact this document , in figurative sense, spreads the acknowledgement about a matter or situation .
NOTORIOUS POSSESSION possession of property that is so clear andpublicly known that is deemed as proved. From latin ” notum ” = public / ” ars ” = conduct / “ possessum ” = occupied . Eg : a farm is attended oroccupied by a person (not being owner) and this conduct is publicly acknowledged.
NOVATION substitution of a new or revised agreement, of new debt orobligation for an existing one. From latin ” novum ” = new / ” actionem ” = act made by . Or also from ” novatus ” = renewed.
NUGATORY ACT law lacking of effect, ineffectual law provision, not able tobe enforced as an act declared unconstitutional . From latin ” nugari ” = to be unimportant , to be irrelevant .
NUISANCE OF A DEED act or continuing condition bringing a damage ,inconvenience or harassment to a person. From latin ” nos ” = to us / ” is ” = that / “anceps” = dangerous. In figurative sense, a deed could be able to provoke an harassment or damage. Also from ” nocere ” = to hurt, to be harmful.
NULL AND VOID ACT act or rule declared without legal effect. From latin “ nullus ” not any, nobody, nothing / “ avius ” = without road, impassableroad / ” ideo ” = so. In fact an act declared null and void is without road in the figurative sense that it will be not brought anywhere.
NULLIFY A DOCUMENT to make an act or any legal deed void or legallyineffective, therefore without legal consequence. From latin ” nullus ” = nothing , not any / from old greek ” dokeo ” = to give information, to teach, to explain.
NUNCUPATIVE WILL declaration concerning testamentary dispositionmade by a testator in the last moment of his life , being present a proper number of witnessess. From latin ” annuntiare ” = to give a notice, to tell / ” cupere ” = to wish. In fact by means of a will, a testator tells what he wishabout his good and real estate.
NUPTIAL AGREEMENT any agreement concerning a relationship betweena marriaged couple. From latin ” nuptiae ” = marriage.