VACANT OFFICE office without legal holder or occupant , waiting the newappointed holder ( usually because the former holder has given the resignation ). Eg : sheriff vacant office . From latin ” vacatus ” = to be empty.
VACATE AN ORDER ( TO V. ) order issued by an appellate court aimed torender null and void an order or a judgement issued by a lower court , involving it avoidance and ineffectiveness. From latin ” vacatus ” = to be empty (of legal worth)
VAGRANCY LAW law (abolished in a lot of legal system ) that waspunishing a conduct of a person who was without fixed home and wandering from place to place without a job. This law has been abolished because gave a punishment to a conduct without a precise definition and therefore arbitrarily interpreted. From latin ” vage ” = here and there, without aim. / ” gressus sum ” = gone.
VAGUENESS OF LAW law lacking of a precise meaning , law punished aunprecised conduct. From latin ” vagus ” = generic.
VALIDATION OF A DOCUMENT act aimed to support and give authorityto a document, act aimed to give a document legal effects and enabling it to be enforced. Eg : validation of a will made by a notary by means of him seal. From latin ” valide ” = strongly / ” idoneus “= proper.
VALUE ( MARKET V. ) average price of a good or estate espressed inmoney or other goods of exchange, that a medium buyer would pay to a medium seller. From latin “valere” = to have a worth.
VANDALISM ( ACTS OF V. ) conduct wilful aimed to destruct a good ,estate or property. From latin ” vandali ” = old people of barbarian living in the present Germany, that were coming to old roman empire , attacking and invading it , being in habit to destroy all the villages met during the invasions.
VARIABLE ANNUITY annuity policy under which the funds are invested instocks or other assets of indeterminate income, therefore giving to the beneficiary an uncertain, changeable and unfixed income. From latin ” variare ” = to change.
VARIABLE INTEREST RATE interest rate which is adjusted at fixedintervals according to a measure which changes over time, as for example ” variare ” = to change.
VARIANCE AMONG DOCUMENTS incompatibility or disagreementamong two or more documents , among allegations , among pleading and proof. From latin ” variare ” = to change.
VEHICULAR CRIME crime committed in the operation of motor vehicle,crime causing an injury due to operation of a motorvehicle. From latin ” vehere ” = to drive, to lead a vehicle.
VENALITY OF A CRIME crime characterized by the willingness to involvesomeone in bribery or other kind of corrupt practices, concerning the unjustified taking of money. From latin ” venalis ” = on sale, saleable.
VEND ( TO ) to dispose of an object or asset by sale ( the seller is called “vendor “, the purchaser is called ” vendee ” ). From latin ” vendere ” = to sell .
VENIRE MAN citizen appointed as potential juror and possibly he will haveto serve a trial as juror. From latin ” venire ” = to come.
VENTURE CAPITAL is money invested in a new start up company, usually indicating a financial operation involving risks or uncertain profits. From latin “ventus ” = wind. In figurative sense, the wind is indicating a thing having more possible directions.
VENUE OF JURISDICTION the place in which a case should be heard. Eg :in case of dispute concerning a house, the venue of jurisdiction usually is the judiciary district in which the house is placed or where the respondant has the residence. From latin “venire” = to come in a place.
VERACITY OF EVIDENCE adherence of an evidence to the true fact. Fromlatin ” verax ” = sincere.
VERBAL ACT act consisting in a spoken language which by itself isconstituting a contract , a will, a transaction (eg : verbal will ) or an offence ( eg : verbal injury). Therefore is an act descriptive of words rather than action . From latin ” verba ” = word.
VERBATIM TRANSCRIPTION activity of transcription word for word,therefore literally the record of testimony given by a witness. From latin ” verba ” = word / “ item ” = in the same way.
VERDICT the decision of a jury after hearing of a case , hearing witness ,expert witness, examining of documents .From latin ” verus ” = true / ” dicere ” = to say. In figurative sense, a jury says the truth about a matter.
VERDICT OF NON LICET statement issued by jury that is not reaching averdict because of some doubt about the fact and document produced by the parties. From latin “verus” = true / ” dicere ” = to say. In figurative sense, a jury says the truth about a matter.
VERIFICATION OF A DOCUMENT establishment the truth or theaccuracy of a document and of the statement in it contained ( usually this verification is made by oath ). From latin ” verum ” = true / ” facere ” = to do / ” actionem ” = perfomance. In figurative sense, a performance direct to ascertain if the document contains matter really done.
VERTICAL AGREEMENT agreement between buyer and seller about a particular commodity item , as for example a supply contract, which the seller delivery the good directly to the buyer (without horizontal intermediation ). From latin ” vertex ” = the head.
VERTICAL MERGER is the merger of two businesses having a relationshipas buyer and seller. Eg: a company having the property of a factory producing cars, buys a factory selling spare parts of the cars. From latin ” vertex ” = the head.
VESTED RIGHT OR LIEN right or lien granted or transferred by alegitimate authority. Eg: in a litigation upon the property right of real estate, the court is vesting the title of property in favour of the winning party. From latin ” vestire ” = to dress . In figurative sense, a party has been dressed with a cloth (the right ).
VETO ( VETO RESOLUTION ) in the U.S. is the resolution issued bylegislative power (legislature ) aimed to nullify or regulation issued by an administrative agency . From latin ” vetare ” = to forbid.
VEXATIOUS CLAIM claim or lawsuit brought with the only aim to harass ,to hindrance or intimidate the opponent , therefore lacking of intent to get the adjudication of a legitimate right . From latin ” vexare ” = to torment.
VICARIOUS LIABILITY liability imposed on a person for the wrongfulconduct of another ( eg : liability imposed upon an employer for the negligence or wrong fact made by the employee during the performance of working activity , as for example a doctor working in a private medical hospital ). From latin ” vicis ” = alternative / “ars” = ability.
VICE PRINCIPAL in many offices, as schools or court trial , is the personenabled to act for the principal when the latter is absent, busy or stopped hindrance. From latin “vicis” = alternative.
VICINAGE OF CRIME’S PLACE neighborhood or area around the place inwhich the crime has been committed. From latin ” vicinus ” = near.
VICTIMLESS CRIME crime not injuring a person or a thing but , intrinsically , is against the common feeling or custom. Eg : illegal possession of drug substance or a conduct consisting simply in a shooting against a cocacola copper bottle as target in a game. From latin ” victima ” = animal killed for a sacrifice.
VIGILANCE BOARD OR COMMITTEE in Italian legal system is a groupof people appointed by governmental authority with the aim to control the activity of some people or professional groups. Eg : vigilance commission over the newspaper printing, over video communications. From latin ” vigil ” = wakeful. In figurative sense, to watch carefully over the activity of professional group.
VINDICATION OF A RIGHT restoration of the possession or ownership ofa right formerly lost. From latin ” vis ” = strenght / ” indicatum ” = demonstrated. In figurative sense , the vindication is a demonstration of the strenght of the validity of own’s right.
VIOLATION OF LAW infringment of law disposition or by a commission ofa wrong conduct or by an omission of legal duty. From latin ” vis ” = strenght / ” lator ” = bringer.
VIOLENT OFFENCES term indicating all the crimes pepetrated by use offorce or violence ( eg: murder, battery ) . From latin ” vis ” = strenght / ” lentus ” = enduring. In fact, the violence is an action involving an enduringuse of the strenght .
VIRTUAL REPRESENTATION in the class actions , is the principleadvocating the representation of all members of a professional or social group by the plaintiff bringing the law suit. From latin ” virtus ” = worth / ” aliquis” = somebody. In figurative sense, somebody , representing a social group, gives worth to the class action.
VIRTUOUS CONDUCT OF PUBLIC BODY ACTIVITY term indicatincthe conduct or the activity of a public body or administrative agency conforming to the principle of right (therefore involving an appreciation on merit ). From latin ” virtus ” = worth.
VISA STAMP stamp put on the foreingner’s passport endorsement andcertifying the entrance of the foreign citizen in the country. From latin ” visere ” = to examine , or from “ vis ” = meaning (in fact, the custom officerasks to the foreign citizen the ground, the meaning or motive of the visit).
VISITATION act of a public agency to which has supervisory authority oversome institution , as for example an hospital visited by functionary of the general health department or a court trial visited by functionary of the general justice department. The visitation is aimed to control the compliance to the rule imposed by the public agency. From latin ” videre ” = to look / ” situs ” = place / ” actionem ” = action, operation
VITAL DATA set of data collected by a public agency, also local as municipaloffice, about act or fact concerning the private life and civil status . (birhts, marriages, adoption ). From latin ” vita ” = life.
VITIATE A CONTRACT to cancel, to anul, to void , to invalidate a contractbecause affected by something unlawful. Eg : the lack of signature in a contract, the impossibility of the performance of a contract. From latin ” vis ” = strenght / “otiare” = to stay inactive, to laze around, to be full of idleness. In figurative sense, the legal strenght or validity of a document becomes inactive, the inactivity of a legal document.
VOID DOCUMENT , VOID SENTENCE legal document or sentencevitiated by something illegal and therefore legally ineffective , without legal consequences. When the document is legally ineffective since its inception is called “void ab initio ” ( void since the beginning). When instead the document or contract although is valid e legally existent, is possible to be avoided by the will or option of one of the parties. From latin ” avius ” = without road, impassable road / ” ideo ” = so . In fact an act declared null and void is without road in the figurative sense that it will be not brought anywhere.
VOLUNTARY APPEARANCE in a legal action is a not compelledappearance in a trial . From latin ” voluntas ” = will / ” ars ” = skill, capacity. Therefore the volunteer appearing person has the capacity to express own’s will to appear or participate to a process . Also, from latin ” volere ” = to want / ” unctum ” = greasy, sprinkled ( ” ungere ” = to grease, to sprinkle ) . In figurative sense, the appearance is not compelled or asked, but greasy by own’s will.
VOLUNTARY BANKRUPTCY PETITION bankruptcy petition filed by thedebtor on himself initiative ( therefore not by initiative of his creditors ) . From latin ” volere ” = to want / ” unctum ” = greasy, sprinkled ( ” ungere ” = to sprinkle, to grease ) / In figurative sense, the petition to stop the business activity is greasy by debtor’s will.
VOLUNTEER DEBTOR debtor paying a debt of someone . The volunteerhas not legal obligation to perform this and the debtor never asked him to do this payment. From latin ” volere ” = to want / ” unctum ” = greasy , sprinkled ( ” ungere ” = to sprinkle , to grease ). In figurative sense, the payment of a debt of another is greasy by debtor’s will.
VOTE RIGHT right granted to the adult people to give or expose own’sopinion in a election . From latin ” votum ” = promised ( ” vovere ” = to promise. In fact, the candidate ask a vote with a promise to do something )
VOUCH ( TO ) to summon someone into law court with the aim to defendthe ownership of a title. From latin ” vocare ” = to call ( to call the court , with the aim to get the examination of a title ownership ).
VOUCHER DOCUMENT written document (usually containing data )attesting or proving the existence of a contract or transaction . From latin ” vocare ” = to call (to call to the memory ).